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Nutritional factors, cognitive decline, and dementia.

Abstract

Nutritional factors and nutritional deficiencies have been repeatedly associated with cognitive impairment. Most of the evidence is based on cross-sectional studies, which cannot prove whether a nutritional deficit is the cause or the consequence of an impaired cognitive status. In fact, cognitive impairment, in turn, can determine changes in dietary habits and consequent nutritional deficiencies. We reviewed clinical and epidemiological studies from January 1983 to June 2004. Several cross-sectional and fewer prospective studies reported an association between dietary or supplemental intake of antioxidants and protection from cognitive decline and dementia. There are negative reports as well and some methodological biases might have affected the consistencies across studies. Deficiencies of several B vitamins have been associated with cognitive dysfunction in many observational studies. More recently, deficiencies of folate (B9) and cobalamine (B12) have been studied in relation to hyperhomocysteinemia as potential determinants of cognitive impairment, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). A small number of studies assessed the association between intake of macronutrients and cognitive function or dementia. Among the others, the intake of fatty acids and cholesterol has received particular attention. Although the results are not always consistent, most studies have reported a protective role of dietary intakes of poly- and mono-unsaturated fatty acids against cognitive decline and AD. We point out that well designed intervention studies are warranted in order to establish specific levels of micro- and macronutrient deficiencies and to set general recommendations for the population.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Obesity and Diabetes Clinical Research Section, 4212N 16 Street, Phoenix, AZ 85016, USA. angelo.delparigi@pfizer.com

    , ,

    Source

    Brain research bulletin 69:1 2006 Mar 15 pg 1-19

    MeSH

    Cognition
    Cognition Disorders
    Dementia
    Diet
    Dietary Supplements
    Humans
    Malnutrition

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    16464680

    Citation

    Del Parigi, Angelo, et al. "Nutritional Factors, Cognitive Decline, and Dementia." Brain Research Bulletin, vol. 69, no. 1, 2006, pp. 1-19.
    Del Parigi A, Panza F, Capurso C, et al. Nutritional factors, cognitive decline, and dementia. Brain Res Bull. 2006;69(1):1-19.
    Del Parigi, A., Panza, F., Capurso, C., & Solfrizzi, V. (2006). Nutritional factors, cognitive decline, and dementia. Brain Research Bulletin, 69(1), pp. 1-19.
    Del Parigi A, et al. Nutritional Factors, Cognitive Decline, and Dementia. Brain Res Bull. 2006 Mar 15;69(1):1-19. PubMed PMID: 16464680.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Nutritional factors, cognitive decline, and dementia. AU - Del Parigi,Angelo, AU - Panza,Francesco, AU - Capurso,Cristiano, AU - Solfrizzi,Vincenzo, Y1 - 2005/11/21/ PY - 2004/11/15/received PY - 2005/09/01/accepted PY - 2006/2/9/pubmed PY - 2007/11/1/medline PY - 2006/2/9/entrez SP - 1 EP - 19 JF - Brain research bulletin JO - Brain Res. Bull. VL - 69 IS - 1 N2 - Nutritional factors and nutritional deficiencies have been repeatedly associated with cognitive impairment. Most of the evidence is based on cross-sectional studies, which cannot prove whether a nutritional deficit is the cause or the consequence of an impaired cognitive status. In fact, cognitive impairment, in turn, can determine changes in dietary habits and consequent nutritional deficiencies. We reviewed clinical and epidemiological studies from January 1983 to June 2004. Several cross-sectional and fewer prospective studies reported an association between dietary or supplemental intake of antioxidants and protection from cognitive decline and dementia. There are negative reports as well and some methodological biases might have affected the consistencies across studies. Deficiencies of several B vitamins have been associated with cognitive dysfunction in many observational studies. More recently, deficiencies of folate (B9) and cobalamine (B12) have been studied in relation to hyperhomocysteinemia as potential determinants of cognitive impairment, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). A small number of studies assessed the association between intake of macronutrients and cognitive function or dementia. Among the others, the intake of fatty acids and cholesterol has received particular attention. Although the results are not always consistent, most studies have reported a protective role of dietary intakes of poly- and mono-unsaturated fatty acids against cognitive decline and AD. We point out that well designed intervention studies are warranted in order to establish specific levels of micro- and macronutrient deficiencies and to set general recommendations for the population. SN - 0361-9230 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16464680/Nutritional_factors_cognitive_decline_and_dementia_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0361-9230(05)00433-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -