Addition of the antioxidant probucol to angiotensin II type I receptor antagonist arrests progressive mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis in the rat.J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006 Mar; 17(3):783-94.JA
Angiotensin II (Ang II) and reactive oxidative species (ROS) that are produced by NADPH oxidase have been implicated in the progression of glomerulonephritis (GN). This study examined the effect of simultaneously interrupting Ang II and ROS with an Ang II receptor blocker (ARB), candesartan, and a free radical scavenger, probucol, in a model of progressive mesangioproliferative GN induced by the injection of anti-Thy-1 antibody into uninephrectomized rats. Nephritic rats were divided into four groups and given daily oral doses of the following: Vehicle, 1% probucol diet, 70 mg/L candesartan in drinking water, and probucol plus candesartan. These treatments lasted until day 56. Vehicle-treated nephritic rats developed progressively elevated proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis. Candesartan kept proteinuria significantly lower than vehicle or probucol. The addition of probucol to candesartan normalized urinary protein excretion. Increases in BP in nephritic rats were lowered by these treatments, except with probucol. It is interesting that both glomerular cell number and glomerulosclerosis were significantly decreased by candesartan and normalized by the addition of probucol. Immunohistochemical studies for TGF-beta1, collagen type I, and fibronectin revealed that the combined treatment abolished glomerular fibrotic findings compared with candesartan. In addition, glomerular expression of NADPH oxidase components and superoxide production suggested that the combined treatment completely eliminated NADPH oxidase-associated ROS production. In conclusion, our study provides the first evidence that the antioxidant probucol, when added to an Ang II receptor blockade, fully arrests proteinuria and disease progression in GN. Furthermore, the data suggest that NADPH oxidase-associated ROS production may play a pivotal role in the progression of GN. The combination of probucol and candesartan may represent a novel route of therapy for patients with progressive GN.