Adolescent suicide attempters in Hong Kong and the United States.Soc Sci Med. 2006 Jul; 63(2):296-306.SS
Using a nested case-control design drawing from a larger sample of 2272 adolescents, this study examined the characteristics of adolescents from Hong Kong (n = 99) and the United States (US) (n = 60), who indicated that they had made a suicide attempt at least once in the past, compared to their equally depressed sex- and age-matched counterparts who had not attempted suicide. The cross-cultural literature suggested three hypotheses which were tested: (a) depressive symptoms would differentiate between suicide attempters compared to non-attempters less in Hong Kong and more in the US; (b) discord in interpersonal relationships would be a more important distinguishing factor in suicide attempts in Hong Kong than in the US and (c) cognitive variables such as hopelessness would be less associated with suicide attempts in Hong Kong compared to the US. There were strong similarities in the two cultures with regard to characteristics that distinguished between attempters and matched controls. Hypotheses regarding cultural differences between attempters in Hong Kong and the US were not supported. Depression, current and lifetime suicide ideation, hopelessness, poor interpersonal relationships and exposure to suicide attempters and completers distinguished attempters from controls equally in the two cultures and in both genders. These findings do not support the proposition that depression is a less relevant variable in suicide attempts in Chinese versus western groups.