Urinary excretion of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) anthocyanins and their metabolites.J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Feb 22; 54(4):1467-72.JA
Anthocyanins are the most abundant phenolic compounds, widely distributed in fruits and vegetables, and exhibit potent antioxidant capacity. Humans ingest a significant amount of anthocyanins in the daily diet. The objective of the current study was to examine human absorption and metabolism of black raspberry anthocyanins when administered at high doses (2.69 +/- 0.085 g/day). Ten healthy men consumed 45 g of freeze-dried black raspberries daily for 1 week. Urine samples were collected over a 12 h period in 4 h intervals at day 1 and day 7. Urinary anthocyanins were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a photodiode array detector and a tandem mass spectrometer using precursor ion and product ion analyses. Anthocyanins were excreted in intact forms and metabolized into methylated derivatives in human urine. The urinary excretion of anthocyanins reached a maximum concentration (1091.8 +/- 1081.3 pmol/L, n = 10) during the 4-8 h period after black raspberry ingestion. As compared to the anthocyanin distribution in black raspberries, urinary cyanidin 3-xylosylrutinoside was detected at a higher concentration than that of cyanidin-3-rutinoside.