Fractionation of heavy metals and distribution of organic carbon in two contaminated soils amended with humic acids.Chemosphere. 2006 Aug; 64(8):1264-73.C
The effects of humic acids (HAs) extracted from two different organic materials on the distribution of heavy metals and on organic-C mineralisation in two contaminated soils were studied in incubation experiments. Humic acids isolated from a mature compost (HAC) and a commercial Spaghnum peat (HAP) were added to an acid soil (pH 3.4; 966 mg kg(-1) Zn and 9,229 mg kg(-1) Pb as main contaminants) and to a calcareous soil (pH 7.7; 2,602 mg kg(-1) Zn and 1,572 mg kg(-1) Pb as main contaminants) at a rate of 1.1g organic-C added per 100g soil. The mineralisation of organic-C was determined by the CO(2) released during the experiment. After 2, 8 and 28 weeks of incubation the heavy metals of the soils were fractionated by a sequential extraction procedure. After 28 weeks of incubation, the mineralisation of the organic-C added was rather low in the soils studied (<8% of TOC in the acid soil; <10% of TOC in the calcareous soil). Both humic acids caused significant Zn and Pb immobilisation (increased proportion of the residual fraction, extractable only with aqua regia) in the acid soil, while Cu and Fe were slightly mobilised (increased concentrations extractable with 0.1M CaCl(2) and/or 0.5M NaOH). In the calcareous soil there were lesser effects, and at the end of the experiment only the fraction mainly related to carbonates (EDTA-extractable) was significantly increased for Zn and decreased for Fe in the humic acids treated samples. However, HA-metal interactions provoked the flocculation of these substances, as suggested by the association of the humic acids with the sand fraction of the soil. These results indicate that humic acid-rich materials can be useful amendments for soil remediation involving stabilisation, although a concomitant slight mobilisation of Zn, Pb and Cu can be provoked in acid soils.