Anti-trichomonal, biochemical and toxicological activities of methanolic extract and some carbazole alkaloids isolated from the leaves of Murraya koenigii growing in Nigeria.Phytomedicine. 2006 Mar; 13(4):246-54.P
The methanolic extract of Murraya koenigii leaf was screened for toxicological and biochemical effects on rats because of the folkloric uses as an anti-dysentery and anti-diabetes. The extract was moderately toxic (LD(50)=316.23 mg/kg body weight) to rats and had appreciable effect on the liver and kidney at higher doses leading to liver inflammation. It had little or no effect on haematology and relative organ weight of lungs, heart and spleen. Acute doses (500 mg/kg) reduced significantly serum globulin, albumin, urea, glucose, total protein, aspartate transaminase (AST), and increased cholesterol and alanine transaminase (ALT) indicating hepatic injury. However, chronic administration for 14 days gave a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the serum cholesterol, glucose, urea, bilirubin, ALT and AST showing that the plant has hypoglycaemic and hepatoprotective effects after prolonged use. The activity demonstrated by some of the isolated carbazole alkaloids and their derivatives against Trichomonas gallinae confirmed that the anti-trichomonal activity of the leaf may be due to its carbazole alkaloids. The order of activity was C(18)>C(23)>C(13). Girinimbine and girinimbilol with IC(50) values of 1.08 and 1.20 microg/ml were the most active. Acetylation of girinimbilol and mahanimbilol improved their activities to 0.60 and 1.08 microg/ml.