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Early-life risk factors for Alzheimer disease.
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 2006 Jan-Mar; 20(1):63-72AD

Abstract

Research findings obtained over the past 20 years suggest that Alzheimer disease (AD) may have its origins in early life. In this review, we consider the evidence for early-life risk factors for this illness. We propose that risk factors that predict neuropathology are largely distinct from those related to the clinical expression of Alzheimer disease. Early-life risk factors for pathology include genes, chromosomal abnormalities, head injury, insulin resistance, and inflammation. With regard to risk factors for clinical expression of Alzheimer disease, six general groups of childhood exposures are reviewed: (1) perinatal conditions, (2) early-life brain development, (3) early-life body growth, (4) early-life socioeconomic conditions, (5) environmental enrichment, and (6) cognitive reserve. The literature reviewed suggests that risk of Alzheimer disease is probably not determined in any single time period but results from the complex interplay between genetic and environmental exposures throughout the life course. Enhancement or preservation of brain or cognitive reserve could delay the onset of Alzheimer disease and in some cases prevent the disease from occurring altogether.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA. aborenst@hsc.usf.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16493239

Citation

Borenstein, Amy R., et al. "Early-life Risk Factors for Alzheimer Disease." Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, vol. 20, no. 1, 2006, pp. 63-72.
Borenstein AR, Copenhaver CI, Mortimer JA. Early-life risk factors for Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2006;20(1):63-72.
Borenstein, A. R., Copenhaver, C. I., & Mortimer, J. A. (2006). Early-life risk factors for Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 20(1), pp. 63-72.
Borenstein AR, Copenhaver CI, Mortimer JA. Early-life Risk Factors for Alzheimer Disease. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2006;20(1):63-72. PubMed PMID: 16493239.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Early-life risk factors for Alzheimer disease. AU - Borenstein,Amy R, AU - Copenhaver,Cathleen I, AU - Mortimer,James A, PY - 2006/2/24/pubmed PY - 2006/7/4/medline PY - 2006/2/24/entrez SP - 63 EP - 72 JF - Alzheimer disease and associated disorders JO - Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord VL - 20 IS - 1 N2 - Research findings obtained over the past 20 years suggest that Alzheimer disease (AD) may have its origins in early life. In this review, we consider the evidence for early-life risk factors for this illness. We propose that risk factors that predict neuropathology are largely distinct from those related to the clinical expression of Alzheimer disease. Early-life risk factors for pathology include genes, chromosomal abnormalities, head injury, insulin resistance, and inflammation. With regard to risk factors for clinical expression of Alzheimer disease, six general groups of childhood exposures are reviewed: (1) perinatal conditions, (2) early-life brain development, (3) early-life body growth, (4) early-life socioeconomic conditions, (5) environmental enrichment, and (6) cognitive reserve. The literature reviewed suggests that risk of Alzheimer disease is probably not determined in any single time period but results from the complex interplay between genetic and environmental exposures throughout the life course. Enhancement or preservation of brain or cognitive reserve could delay the onset of Alzheimer disease and in some cases prevent the disease from occurring altogether. SN - 0893-0341 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16493239/Early_life_risk_factors_for_Alzheimer_disease_ L2 - http://Insights.ovid.com/pubmed?pmid=16493239 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -