Four dengue virus serotypes found circulating during an outbreak of dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever in Jakarta, Indonesia, during 2004.Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Sep; 100(9):855-62.TR
Periodic outbreaks of dengue have emerged in Indonesia since 1968, with the severity of resulting disease increasing in subsequent years. In early 2004, a purported dengue outbreak erupted across the archipelago, with over 50,000 cases and 603 deaths reported. To confirm the disease aetiology and to provide an epidemiological framework of this epidemic, an investigation was conducted in ten hospitals within the capital city of Jakarta. Clinical and laboratory findings were determined from a cohort of 272 hospitalised patients. Exposure to dengue virus was determined in 180 (66.2%) patients. When clinically assessed, 100 (55.6%) of the 180 patients were classified as having dengue fever (DF), 31 (17.2%) as DF with haemorrhagic manifestations and 49 (27.2%) as dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). Evidence from haemagglutination inhibition assays suggested that 33/40 (82.5%) of those with DHF from which laboratory evidence was available suffered from a secondary dengue infection. All four dengue viruses were identified upon viral isolation, with DEN-3 being the most predominant serotype recovered, followed by DEN-4, DEN-2 and DEN-1. In summary, the 2004 outbreak of dengue in Jakarta, Indonesia, was characterised by the circulation of multiple virus serotypes and resulted in a relatively high percentage of a representative population of hospitalised patients developing DHF.