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Disposition of lead (Pb) in saliva and blood of Sprague-Dawley rats following a single or repeated oral exposure to Pb-acetate.
Toxicology. 2006 May 01; 222(1-2):86-94.T

Abstract

Biological monitoring for lead (Pb) is usually based upon a determination of blood Pb concentration; however, saliva has been suggested as a non-invasive biological matrix for assessing exposure. To further evaluate the potential utility of saliva for biomonitoring, the disposition of Pb was evaluated in whole blood (WB), red blood cells (RBC), plasma, parotid gland, bone, and saliva following either a single oral dose of 100mg Pb-acetate/kg body weight in rats or approximately 1-week after 5 sequential daily oral gavage doses of 1, 10, or 100mg Pb-acetate/kg/day. Saliva volume, pH, total saliva protein, and alpha-amylase activity were also determined. At specified times post-dosing groups of animals were anesthetized and administered pilocarpine to induce salivation. Saliva was collected, the animals were humanely sacrificed, and tissue samples were likewise collected, weighed, and processed for Pb analysis. Following a single dose exposure to Pb-acetate, Pb was detectable in all samples by 30 min post-dosing. For both the single and repeated dose treatments the concentration of Pb was highest in WB and RBC relative to plasma and saliva. However, the Pb rapidly redistributed (within 5-days post-treatment) from the blood into the bone compartment based on the substantial decrease in WB and RBC Pb concentration, and the concurrent increase in bone Pb following repeated exposure at all dose levels. Although there is clear variability in the observed Pb concentrations in plasma and saliva, there was a reasonable correlation (r(2)=0.922) between the average Pb concentrations in these biological matrices, which was consistent with previous observations. The single oral dose of Pb-acetate resulted in a decrease in salivary pH which recovered by 24h post-dosing and a decrease in alpha-amylase enzyme activity which did recover within 5-days of ceasing exposure. It is currently unclear what impact these slight functional changes may or may not have on Pb salivary clearance rates. These results demonstrate a feasibility to rapidly detect Pb in saliva and suggest that saliva may correlate best with plasma Pb concentration.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, PO Box 999, Richland, WA 99352, USA. charles.timchalk@pnl.govNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16510233

Citation

Timchalk, C, et al. "Disposition of Lead (Pb) in Saliva and Blood of Sprague-Dawley Rats Following a Single or Repeated Oral Exposure to Pb-acetate." Toxicology, vol. 222, no. 1-2, 2006, pp. 86-94.
Timchalk C, Lin Y, Weitz KK, et al. Disposition of lead (Pb) in saliva and blood of Sprague-Dawley rats following a single or repeated oral exposure to Pb-acetate. Toxicology. 2006;222(1-2):86-94.
Timchalk, C., Lin, Y., Weitz, K. K., Wu, H., Gies, R. A., Moore, D. A., & Yantasee, W. (2006). Disposition of lead (Pb) in saliva and blood of Sprague-Dawley rats following a single or repeated oral exposure to Pb-acetate. Toxicology, 222(1-2), 86-94.
Timchalk C, et al. Disposition of Lead (Pb) in Saliva and Blood of Sprague-Dawley Rats Following a Single or Repeated Oral Exposure to Pb-acetate. Toxicology. 2006 May 1;222(1-2):86-94. PubMed PMID: 16510233.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Disposition of lead (Pb) in saliva and blood of Sprague-Dawley rats following a single or repeated oral exposure to Pb-acetate. AU - Timchalk,C, AU - Lin,Y, AU - Weitz,K K, AU - Wu,H, AU - Gies,R A, AU - Moore,D A, AU - Yantasee,W, Y1 - 2006/02/28/ PY - 2005/12/13/received PY - 2006/01/25/revised PY - 2006/01/28/accepted PY - 2006/3/3/pubmed PY - 2006/6/9/medline PY - 2006/3/3/entrez SP - 86 EP - 94 JF - Toxicology JO - Toxicology VL - 222 IS - 1-2 N2 - Biological monitoring for lead (Pb) is usually based upon a determination of blood Pb concentration; however, saliva has been suggested as a non-invasive biological matrix for assessing exposure. To further evaluate the potential utility of saliva for biomonitoring, the disposition of Pb was evaluated in whole blood (WB), red blood cells (RBC), plasma, parotid gland, bone, and saliva following either a single oral dose of 100mg Pb-acetate/kg body weight in rats or approximately 1-week after 5 sequential daily oral gavage doses of 1, 10, or 100mg Pb-acetate/kg/day. Saliva volume, pH, total saliva protein, and alpha-amylase activity were also determined. At specified times post-dosing groups of animals were anesthetized and administered pilocarpine to induce salivation. Saliva was collected, the animals were humanely sacrificed, and tissue samples were likewise collected, weighed, and processed for Pb analysis. Following a single dose exposure to Pb-acetate, Pb was detectable in all samples by 30 min post-dosing. For both the single and repeated dose treatments the concentration of Pb was highest in WB and RBC relative to plasma and saliva. However, the Pb rapidly redistributed (within 5-days post-treatment) from the blood into the bone compartment based on the substantial decrease in WB and RBC Pb concentration, and the concurrent increase in bone Pb following repeated exposure at all dose levels. Although there is clear variability in the observed Pb concentrations in plasma and saliva, there was a reasonable correlation (r(2)=0.922) between the average Pb concentrations in these biological matrices, which was consistent with previous observations. The single oral dose of Pb-acetate resulted in a decrease in salivary pH which recovered by 24h post-dosing and a decrease in alpha-amylase enzyme activity which did recover within 5-days of ceasing exposure. It is currently unclear what impact these slight functional changes may or may not have on Pb salivary clearance rates. These results demonstrate a feasibility to rapidly detect Pb in saliva and suggest that saliva may correlate best with plasma Pb concentration. SN - 0300-483X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16510233/Disposition_of_lead__Pb__in_saliva_and_blood_of_Sprague_Dawley_rats_following_a_single_or_repeated_oral_exposure_to_Pb_acetate_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0300-483X(06)00082-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -