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Ecstasy: are animal data consistent between species and can they translate to humans?
J Psychopharmacol. 2006 Mar; 20(2):194-210.JP

Abstract

The number of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy or MDMA) animal research articles is rapidly increasing and yet studies which place emphasis on the clinical significance are limited due to a lack of reliable human data. MDMA produces an acute, rapid release of brain serotonin and dopamine in experimental animals and in the rat this is associated with increased locomotor activity and the serotonin behavioural syndrome in rats. MDMA causes dose-dependent hyperthermia, which is potentially fatal, in humans, primates and rodents. Subsequent serotonergic neurotoxicity has been demonstrated by biochemical and histological studies and is reported to last for months in rats and years in non-human primates. Relating human data to findings in animals is complicated by reports that MDMA exposure in mice produces selective long-term dopaminergic impairment with no effect on serotonin. This review compares data obtained from animal and human studies and examines the acute physiological, behavioural and biochemical effects of MDMA as well as the long-term behavioural effects together with serotonergic and dopaminergic impairments. Consideration is also given to the role of neurotoxic metabolites and the influence of age, sex and user groups on the long-term actions of MDMA.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Biomedical Science, University of Nottingham, Queen's Medical Centre, UK. neil.easton@nottingham.ac.ukNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16510478

Citation

Easton, Neil, and Charles A. Marsden. "Ecstasy: Are Animal Data Consistent Between Species and Can They Translate to Humans?" Journal of Psychopharmacology (Oxford, England), vol. 20, no. 2, 2006, pp. 194-210.
Easton N, Marsden CA. Ecstasy: are animal data consistent between species and can they translate to humans? J Psychopharmacol (Oxford). 2006;20(2):194-210.
Easton, N., & Marsden, C. A. (2006). Ecstasy: are animal data consistent between species and can they translate to humans? Journal of Psychopharmacology (Oxford, England), 20(2), 194-210.
Easton N, Marsden CA. Ecstasy: Are Animal Data Consistent Between Species and Can They Translate to Humans. J Psychopharmacol (Oxford). 2006;20(2):194-210. PubMed PMID: 16510478.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Ecstasy: are animal data consistent between species and can they translate to humans? AU - Easton,Neil, AU - Marsden,Charles A, PY - 2006/3/3/pubmed PY - 2006/8/10/medline PY - 2006/3/3/entrez SP - 194 EP - 210 JF - Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England) JO - J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) VL - 20 IS - 2 N2 - The number of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy or MDMA) animal research articles is rapidly increasing and yet studies which place emphasis on the clinical significance are limited due to a lack of reliable human data. MDMA produces an acute, rapid release of brain serotonin and dopamine in experimental animals and in the rat this is associated with increased locomotor activity and the serotonin behavioural syndrome in rats. MDMA causes dose-dependent hyperthermia, which is potentially fatal, in humans, primates and rodents. Subsequent serotonergic neurotoxicity has been demonstrated by biochemical and histological studies and is reported to last for months in rats and years in non-human primates. Relating human data to findings in animals is complicated by reports that MDMA exposure in mice produces selective long-term dopaminergic impairment with no effect on serotonin. This review compares data obtained from animal and human studies and examines the acute physiological, behavioural and biochemical effects of MDMA as well as the long-term behavioural effects together with serotonergic and dopaminergic impairments. Consideration is also given to the role of neurotoxic metabolites and the influence of age, sex and user groups on the long-term actions of MDMA. SN - 0269-8811 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16510478/Ecstasy:_are_animal_data_consistent_between_species_and_can_they_translate_to_humans L2 - http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0269881106061153?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -