Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) evaluation of a once-daily treatment using ciprofloxacin in an extended-release dosage form.Infection. 2005 Dec; 33 Suppl 2:22-8.I
To evaluate the suitability of a once-a-day dosing regimen of ciprofloxacin using a new extended-release dosage form based on PK/PD principles.
Ciprofloxacin's serum concentrations were measured after administration of 500 mg immediate-release twice-daily, and 1,000 mg extended-release once-daily to 19 healthy volunteers. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using non-compartmental and compartmental data analysis. Measured serum concentration profiles were linked to ciprofloxacin's effect against Escherichia coli (MIC 0.013 mg/l) from in vitro kill curve studies where the pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin were simulated and change in number of bacteria (CFU/ml) versus time was monitored. Resulting parameters were used to compare expected kill curves for the two dosing regimens based on measured ciprofloxacin concentrations.
Fitting the data using an appropriate PK/PD model resulted in a set of mean pharmacodynamic parameters (bacterial growth rate constant, k0, maximum kill rate constant, Kmax, and EC50). The model included a novel term to account for a change in kill rate after approximately 4 h when Kmax decreased in concentration-dependent matter. The model allowed excellent curve fits of all ciprofloxacin concentrations investigated. Comparison of expected kill curves with the immediate-release versus extended-release treatments showed similar outcome. Both treatments resulted in a decrease in CFU/ml > 5 log units over 24 h.
Results indicate that once-a-day dosing of equal total daily doses with the new and more compliance-friendly extended-release dosing form will be therapeutically equivalent to once-a-day dosing with traditional immediate-release dosage forms for treatment of infections with this microorganism.