Oral cancer and pre-cancer in Myanmar: a short review.J Oral Pathol Med 2006; 35(4):193-6JO
Cancer in Myanmar is one of the 10 leading causes of morbidity and mortality. In 1974, the Yangon Cancer Registry was established. From 1974 to 2001 a total of 85 298 cancer cases were registered. From 1963 to 1972 the average annual incidence rate of oral cancer was calculated to be 363 per 100 000 population. The tongue was mostly affected (31.2%). In one study, the prevalence of oral leukoplakia was 1.7%, erythroplakia 0.1%, and submucous fibrosis 0.1%. No epidemiologic studies of the prevalence of betel quid chewing (BQC) in Myanmar have been performed. One study showed that among 773 individuals over the age of 6 years, 46.4% were habitual smokers. A recent symposium on oral health stressed the necessity to introduce concepts of prevention, focusing on BQC habits and smoking as high-risk factors for oral cancer and pre-cancer in Myanmar.