Multifactorial nature of male nocturia.Urology. 2006 Mar; 67(3):541-4.U
To conduct a prospective study to determine the causes of nocturia in men.
The study included 41 male patients (mean age 72.5 years) bothered by nocturia (two or more micturitions per night). Eleven asymptomatic young men (mean age 28.4 years) were enrolled as a control group. All completed a 3-day voiding diary. Daytime and nighttime urine samples were collected to determine osmolality and sodium and potassium levels. Urodynamic studies were performed for all patients with nocturia to evaluate for bladder outlet obstruction using the International Continence Society definition. Polysomnography was performed on selected patients to detect sleep apnea.
The average nighttime voiding frequency was 3.9 in the patients with nocturia. Nocturnal polyuria (NP) was found in 34 (82.9%) of 41 patients. In these patients, the nighttime urinary sodium excretion was significantly greater than the daytime excretion, with lower nighttime urine osmolality. In contrast, nighttime and daytime sodium excretion was not significantly different in patients without NP, and greater nighttime urine osmolality was noted in the patients without NP and the control group. Of the 41 patients, 24 (58.5%) had a small nocturnal bladder capacity, with detrusor overactivity in 14 of 24 patients. Eighteen patients (43.9%) had both NP and a small nocturnal bladder capacity. Another 18 patients had bladder outlet obstruction and NP. Two patients had sleep apnea.
Our observations have shown that a significant contributor to male nocturia is NP, which results from a disordered diurnal rhythm of sodium excretion and other unknown factors causing nocturnal urinary dilution. However, male nocturia can also be secondary to a combination of factors. Detailed workup is necessary to elucidate all causes.