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Airborne exposure and biological monitoring of bar and restaurant workers before and after the introduction of a smoking ban.
J Environ Monit. 2006 Mar; 8(3):362-8.JE

Abstract

The aims were to assess the impact of a total smoking ban on the level of airborne contaminants and the urinary cotinine levels in the employees in bars and restaurants. In a follow up design, 13 bars and restaurants were visited before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Ninety-three employees in the establishments were initially included into the study. The arithmetic mean concentration of nicotine and total dust declined from 28.3 microg m(-3) (range, 0.4-88.0) and 262 microg m(-3) (range, 52-662), respectively, to 0.6 microg m(-3) (range, not detected-3.7) and 77 microg m(-3) (range, not detected-261) after the smoking ban. The Pearson correlation coefficient between airborne nicotine and total dust was 0.86 (p < 0.001; n = 48). The post-shift geometric mean urinary cotinine concentration declined from 9.5 microg g(-1) creatinine (cr) (95% CI 6.5-13.7) to 1.4 microg g(-1) cr (95% CI 0.8-2.5) after the ban (p < 0.001) in 25 non-snuffing non-smokers. A reduction from 1444 microg g(-1) cr (95% CI 957-2180) to 688 microg g(-1) cr (95% CI 324-1458) was found (p < 0.05) in 29 non-snuffing smokers. The urinary cotinine levels increased from 11.7 microg g(-1) cr (95% CI 7.0-19.6) post-shift to 21.9 microg g(-1) cr (95% CI 13.3-36.3) (p < 0.01) in the next morning in 24 non-snuffing non-smokers before the smoking ban. A substantial reduction of airborne nicotine and total dust was observed after the introduction of a smoking ban in bars and restaurants. The urinary cotinine levels were reduced in non-smokers. The decline found in smokers may suggest a reduction in the amount of smoking after intervention. In non-smokers cotinine concentrations were higher based on urine sampled the morning after a shift than based on urine sampled immediately post-shift.

Authors+Show Affiliations

National Institute of Occupational Health, P.O. Box 8149 Dep, N-0033, Oslo, Norway. dag.ellingsen@stami.noNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16528420

Citation

Ellingsen, Dag G., et al. "Airborne Exposure and Biological Monitoring of Bar and Restaurant Workers Before and After the Introduction of a Smoking Ban." Journal of Environmental Monitoring : JEM, vol. 8, no. 3, 2006, pp. 362-8.
Ellingsen DG, Fladseth G, Daae HL, et al. Airborne exposure and biological monitoring of bar and restaurant workers before and after the introduction of a smoking ban. J Environ Monit. 2006;8(3):362-8.
Ellingsen, D. G., Fladseth, G., Daae, H. L., Gjølstad, M., Kjaerheim, K., Skogstad, M., Olsen, R., Thorud, S., & Molander, P. (2006). Airborne exposure and biological monitoring of bar and restaurant workers before and after the introduction of a smoking ban. Journal of Environmental Monitoring : JEM, 8(3), 362-8.
Ellingsen DG, et al. Airborne Exposure and Biological Monitoring of Bar and Restaurant Workers Before and After the Introduction of a Smoking Ban. J Environ Monit. 2006;8(3):362-8. PubMed PMID: 16528420.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Airborne exposure and biological monitoring of bar and restaurant workers before and after the introduction of a smoking ban. AU - Ellingsen,Dag G, AU - Fladseth,Geir, AU - Daae,Hanne L, AU - Gjølstad,Merete, AU - Kjaerheim,Kristina, AU - Skogstad,Marit, AU - Olsen,Raymond, AU - Thorud,Syvert, AU - Molander,Paal, Y1 - 2006/02/20/ PY - 2006/3/11/pubmed PY - 2006/8/9/medline PY - 2006/3/11/entrez SP - 362 EP - 8 JF - Journal of environmental monitoring : JEM JO - J Environ Monit VL - 8 IS - 3 N2 - The aims were to assess the impact of a total smoking ban on the level of airborne contaminants and the urinary cotinine levels in the employees in bars and restaurants. In a follow up design, 13 bars and restaurants were visited before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Ninety-three employees in the establishments were initially included into the study. The arithmetic mean concentration of nicotine and total dust declined from 28.3 microg m(-3) (range, 0.4-88.0) and 262 microg m(-3) (range, 52-662), respectively, to 0.6 microg m(-3) (range, not detected-3.7) and 77 microg m(-3) (range, not detected-261) after the smoking ban. The Pearson correlation coefficient between airborne nicotine and total dust was 0.86 (p < 0.001; n = 48). The post-shift geometric mean urinary cotinine concentration declined from 9.5 microg g(-1) creatinine (cr) (95% CI 6.5-13.7) to 1.4 microg g(-1) cr (95% CI 0.8-2.5) after the ban (p < 0.001) in 25 non-snuffing non-smokers. A reduction from 1444 microg g(-1) cr (95% CI 957-2180) to 688 microg g(-1) cr (95% CI 324-1458) was found (p < 0.05) in 29 non-snuffing smokers. The urinary cotinine levels increased from 11.7 microg g(-1) cr (95% CI 7.0-19.6) post-shift to 21.9 microg g(-1) cr (95% CI 13.3-36.3) (p < 0.01) in the next morning in 24 non-snuffing non-smokers before the smoking ban. A substantial reduction of airborne nicotine and total dust was observed after the introduction of a smoking ban in bars and restaurants. The urinary cotinine levels were reduced in non-smokers. The decline found in smokers may suggest a reduction in the amount of smoking after intervention. In non-smokers cotinine concentrations were higher based on urine sampled the morning after a shift than based on urine sampled immediately post-shift. SN - 1464-0325 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16528420/Airborne_exposure_and_biological_monitoring_of_bar_and_restaurant_workers_before_and_after_the_introduction_of_a_smoking_ban_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1039/b600050a DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -