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Ethnic differences in arterial stiffness and wave reflections after cigarette smoking.
J Hypertens. 2006 Apr; 24(4):683-9.JH

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Smoking increases plasma nicotine. Nicotine releases catecholamines and alters arterial distensibility. The nicotine intake per cigarette is greater and serum cotinine levels, the proximate metabolite of nicotine, are higher in Blacks than in Whites. We tested the hypothesis that cigarette smoking increases the pulse wave velocity (PWV), a marker of arterial stiffness, and the augmentation index (AI), a measure of wave reflection, more in Blacks than in Whites.

METHODS

We matched Black (n = 30) and White (n = 30) smokers for age, gender, body mass index and height. We determined carotid-femoral PWV (PWVCF) and carotid-radial PWV (PWVCR) (Complior), the AI derived from the aortic pressure waveform (applanation tonometry, Sphygmocor), blood pressure, heart rate (HR) and cotinine levels before and after cigarette smoking. We also performed measurements in 16 participants after sham smoking.

RESULTS

Smoking increased the AI, PWVCF and PWVCR in the whole population (all P < 0.05, n = 60). Increases in the AI and PWV were positively related to serum cotinine levels (all P < 0.05). Smoking increased serum cotinine (P = 0.01) and mean blood pressure (P = 0.03) more, but raised the HR to a lesser extent, in Blacks [+8 +/- 4 versus +13 +/- 6 beats/min in Whites (mean +/- SD), P = 0.01]. Blacks disclosed larger increases in AI adjusted for HR (Blacks, +7.2 +/- 8 versus Whites, +4.4 +/- 8%; P = 0.03), PWVCF (Blacks, +1.1 +/- 0.2 versus Whites, +0.6 +/- 0.3 m/s; P < 0.01) and PWVCR (Blacks, +1.4 +/- 0.1 versus Whites, +0.7 +/- 0.4 m/s; P < 0.01) normalized for the mean blood pressure. No changes were observed with sham smoking.

CONCLUSIONS

Smoking acutely increases the PWV and AI in Blacks more than in Whites. Differences in nicotine metabolism and beta-adrenergic sensitivity could explain these findings.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Hypertension Clinic, Department of Cardiology, Erasme Hospital, Brussels, Belgium. dlems2002@yahoo.frNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16531796

Citation

Lemogoum, Daniel, et al. "Ethnic Differences in Arterial Stiffness and Wave Reflections After Cigarette Smoking." Journal of Hypertension, vol. 24, no. 4, 2006, pp. 683-9.
Lemogoum D, Van Bortel L, Leeman M, et al. Ethnic differences in arterial stiffness and wave reflections after cigarette smoking. J Hypertens. 2006;24(4):683-9.
Lemogoum, D., Van Bortel, L., Leeman, M., Degaute, J. P., & van de Borne, P. (2006). Ethnic differences in arterial stiffness and wave reflections after cigarette smoking. Journal of Hypertension, 24(4), 683-9.
Lemogoum D, et al. Ethnic Differences in Arterial Stiffness and Wave Reflections After Cigarette Smoking. J Hypertens. 2006;24(4):683-9. PubMed PMID: 16531796.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Ethnic differences in arterial stiffness and wave reflections after cigarette smoking. AU - Lemogoum,Daniel, AU - Van Bortel,Luc, AU - Leeman,Marc, AU - Degaute,Jean-Paul, AU - van de Borne,Philippe, PY - 2006/3/15/pubmed PY - 2006/5/31/medline PY - 2006/3/15/entrez SP - 683 EP - 9 JF - Journal of hypertension JO - J. Hypertens. VL - 24 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: Smoking increases plasma nicotine. Nicotine releases catecholamines and alters arterial distensibility. The nicotine intake per cigarette is greater and serum cotinine levels, the proximate metabolite of nicotine, are higher in Blacks than in Whites. We tested the hypothesis that cigarette smoking increases the pulse wave velocity (PWV), a marker of arterial stiffness, and the augmentation index (AI), a measure of wave reflection, more in Blacks than in Whites. METHODS: We matched Black (n = 30) and White (n = 30) smokers for age, gender, body mass index and height. We determined carotid-femoral PWV (PWVCF) and carotid-radial PWV (PWVCR) (Complior), the AI derived from the aortic pressure waveform (applanation tonometry, Sphygmocor), blood pressure, heart rate (HR) and cotinine levels before and after cigarette smoking. We also performed measurements in 16 participants after sham smoking. RESULTS: Smoking increased the AI, PWVCF and PWVCR in the whole population (all P < 0.05, n = 60). Increases in the AI and PWV were positively related to serum cotinine levels (all P < 0.05). Smoking increased serum cotinine (P = 0.01) and mean blood pressure (P = 0.03) more, but raised the HR to a lesser extent, in Blacks [+8 +/- 4 versus +13 +/- 6 beats/min in Whites (mean +/- SD), P = 0.01]. Blacks disclosed larger increases in AI adjusted for HR (Blacks, +7.2 +/- 8 versus Whites, +4.4 +/- 8%; P = 0.03), PWVCF (Blacks, +1.1 +/- 0.2 versus Whites, +0.6 +/- 0.3 m/s; P < 0.01) and PWVCR (Blacks, +1.4 +/- 0.1 versus Whites, +0.7 +/- 0.4 m/s; P < 0.01) normalized for the mean blood pressure. No changes were observed with sham smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking acutely increases the PWV and AI in Blacks more than in Whites. Differences in nicotine metabolism and beta-adrenergic sensitivity could explain these findings. SN - 0263-6352 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16531796/Ethnic_differences_in_arterial_stiffness_and_wave_reflections_after_cigarette_smoking_ L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.hjh.0000217850.87960.16 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -