Determination of sulfonylurea herbicides in water and food samples using sol-gel glass-based immunoaffinity extraction and liquid chromatography-ultraviolet/diode array detection or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Mar 22; 54(6):2003-11.JA
Immunoaffinity supports (IAS) were prepared using broad specific polyclonal anti-sulfonylurea (SU) antibodies immobilized in sol-gel glass. Two different kinds of supports were applied, crushed sol-gel monoliths and sol-gel-coated highly porous silica particles. Both were used for the quantitative enrichment of SUs in natural water and food samples followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet/diode array detection (HPLC-UV/DAD) and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), respectively. Loading, washing, and elution conditions of IAS were optimized. The capacity of supports was determined for 30 SUs and compared with the cross-reactivity pattern of the direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The capacities correlated well with the affinity to individual SU compounds. Even analytes to which the polyclonal antibodies showed only a lower cross-reactivity could be enriched to a certain degree, if a sufficient capacity of IAS was provided. The IAS could be reused at least 10 times without a loss of effectiveness. Recovery of 16 selected SUs extracted from spiked water and food samples was dependent on the affinity of both immobilized antibodies to single compounds and matrix interferences. In water, 13 SUs showed recoveries higher than 80% when immunoaffinity extraction was used in combination with LC-UV/DAD. On the basis of the enrichment of 200 mL of aqueous sample, corresponding limit of detection (LOD) values ranged between 20 and 100 ng/L. The recoveries of 10 SUs, which were extracted from 10 g of potato spiked at a 10 microg/kg level, were higher than 75%. For grain samples, recoveries were at the same order for at least five SU herbicides. The LOD of LC-MS/MS measurements was about 1 order of magnitude higher, i.e., gave LODs between 1.1 and 6.9 microg/kg of food sample, depending on the compound and extraction procedure. These LODs provide evidence that the main advantage of the prepared IAS is their high selectivity for group specific recognition of SUs as compared to other nonspecific solid phase extraction materials.