Single molecule fluorescence imaging of the photoinduced conversion and bleaching behavior of the fluorescent protein Kaede.Microsc Res Tech. 2006 Mar; 69(3):210-9.MR
Photoconversion and photobleaching behavior of the fluorescent protein Kaede immobilized in polyacrylamide gel matrix at room temperature was studied by single molecule wide-field fluorescence microscopy. Photobleaching kinetics of Kaede molecules upon excitation at 488 nm showed slight heterogeneity, suggesting the presence of different protein conformations and/or the distribution of local environments in the gel matrix. Statistical analysis of intensity trajectories of single molecules revealed four major types of fluorescence dynamics behavior upon short illumination by a violet light pulse (405 nm). In particular, two types of photoswitching behavior were observed: the green-to-red photoconversion (4% of Kaede molecules) and the photoactivation of green fluorescence without emission of red fluorescence (13%). Two other major groups show neither photoconversion nor red emission and demonstrate photoinduced partial deactivation (43%) and partial revival (30%) of green fluorescence. The significantly lower green-to-red conversion ratio as compared with bulk measurements in aqueous solution might be induced by the immobilization of the protein molecules within a polyacrylamide gel. Contrary to Ando et al. (Proc Natl Acad Sci 2002;99:12651-12656), we found a significant increase in green fluorescence emission upon illumination with 405-nm light, which is typical for GFP and related proteins.