Pentoxifylline ameliorates proteinuria through suppression of renal monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in patients with proteinuric primary glomerular diseases.Kidney Int. 2006 Apr; 69(8):1410-5.KI
Proteinuria (albuminuria) reflects dysfunction of the glomerular permeability barrier in which inflammatory cytokines play a key role. Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor that possesses potent anti-inflammatory and immunomudulatory effects. This study evaluated the effectiveness of PTX to reduce proteinuria and inflammatory mediators in patients with proteinuric primary glomerular diseases. Seventeen patients with primary glomerular diseases, a persistent spot proteinuria exceeding 1.5 g/g creatinine (Cr) and a glomerular filtration rate between 24 and 115 ml/min/1.73 m(2) were treated with PTX 400 mg twice daily for 6 months. Before and after the treatment, serum Cr, plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentrations, plasma and urinary tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin-1beta and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, as well as urinary protein and Cr were measured. PTX significantly reduced urinary protein excretion, along with an increase of serum albumin. A significant correlation existed between the basal urinary protein/Cr and the basal urinary MCP-1/Cr ratios. PTX lowered the urinary MCP-1/Cr ratio, and the percent reduction of urinary protein/Cr ratio correlated directly with the precent decrease of urinary MCP-1/Cr ratio after PTX treatment. There was no significant change in blood pressure, renal function, biochemical parameters, plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentrations, or plasma TNF-alpha and MCP-1 levels during the study. In conclusion, administration of PTX 800 mg per day is safe and effective for reducing proteinuria in patients with proteinuric primary glomerular diseases. This beneficial effect occurs in close association with a reduction of urinary MCP-1 excretion.