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Characterization of particulate and gas exposures of sensitive subpopulations living in Baltimore and Boston.

Abstract

Personal exposures to particulate and gaseous pollutants and corresponding ambient concentrations were measured for 56 subjects living in Baltimore, Maryland, and 43 subjects living in Boston, Massachusetts. The 3 Baltimore cohorts consisted of 20 healthy older adults (seniors), 21 children, and 15 individuals with physician-diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD*). The 2 Boston cohorts were 20 healthy seniors and 23 children. All children were 9 to 13 years of age; seniors were 65 years of age or older; and the COPD participants had moderate to severe physician-diagnosed COPD. Personal exposures to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5), sulfate (SO(4)2-), elemental carbon (EC), ozone (03), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were measured simultaneously for 24 hours/day. All subjects were monitored for 8 to 12 consecutive days. The primary objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the personal particulate and gaseous exposures for individuals sensitive to PM health effects and (2) to assess the appropriateness of exposure assessment strategies for use in PM epidemiologic studies. Personal exposures to multiple pollutants and ambient concentrations were measured for subjects from each cohort from each location. Pollutant data were analyzed using correlation and mixed-model regression analyses. In Baltimore, personal PM2.5 exposures tended to be comparable to (and frequently lower than) corresponding ambient concentrations; in Boston, the personal exposures were frequently higher. Overall, personal exposures to the gaseous pollutants, especially O3 and SO2, were considerably lower than corresponding ambient concentrations because of the lack of indoor sources for these gases and their high removal rate on indoor surfaces. Further, the impact of ambient particles on personal exposure (the infiltration factor) and differences in infiltration factor by city, season, and cohort were investigated. No difference in infiltration factor was found among the cohorts, which suggests that all subjects were exposed to the same fraction of ambient PM2.5 for a given ambient concentration. In addition, the results show significant correlations between ambient PM2.5 concentrations and corresponding personal exposures over time and provide further indication that ambient gaseous pollutant concentrations may be better surrogates for personal PM2.5 exposures, especially personal exposures to PM2.5 of ambient origin, than their respective personal exposures. These results have important implications for PM health effects studies that use regression models including both ambient PM2.5 and gaseous pollutant concentrations as independent variables, because both parameters may be serving as surrogates for PM2.5 exposures.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Exposure, Epidemiology and Risk Program, Harvard School of Public Health, Landmark Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16541849

Citation

Koutrakis, Petros, et al. "Characterization of Particulate and Gas Exposures of Sensitive Subpopulations Living in Baltimore and Boston." Research Report (Health Effects Institute), 2005, pp. 1-65; discussion 67-75.
Koutrakis P, Suh HH, Sarnat JA, et al. Characterization of particulate and gas exposures of sensitive subpopulations living in Baltimore and Boston. Res Rep Health Eff Inst. 2005.
Koutrakis, P., Suh, H. H., Sarnat, J. A., Brown, K. W., Coull, B. A., & Schwartz, J. (2005). Characterization of particulate and gas exposures of sensitive subpopulations living in Baltimore and Boston. Research Report (Health Effects Institute), (131), 1-65; discussion 67-75.
Koutrakis P, et al. Characterization of Particulate and Gas Exposures of Sensitive Subpopulations Living in Baltimore and Boston. Res Rep Health Eff Inst. 2005;(131)1-65; discussion 67-75. PubMed PMID: 16541849.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Characterization of particulate and gas exposures of sensitive subpopulations living in Baltimore and Boston. AU - Koutrakis,Petros, AU - Suh,Helen H, AU - Sarnat,Jeremy A, AU - Brown,Kathleen Ward, AU - Coull,Brent A, AU - Schwartz,Joel, PY - 2006/3/18/pubmed PY - 2006/6/24/medline PY - 2006/3/18/entrez SP - 1-65; discussion 67-75 JF - Research report (Health Effects Institute) JO - Res Rep Health Eff Inst IS - 131 N2 - Personal exposures to particulate and gaseous pollutants and corresponding ambient concentrations were measured for 56 subjects living in Baltimore, Maryland, and 43 subjects living in Boston, Massachusetts. The 3 Baltimore cohorts consisted of 20 healthy older adults (seniors), 21 children, and 15 individuals with physician-diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD*). The 2 Boston cohorts were 20 healthy seniors and 23 children. All children were 9 to 13 years of age; seniors were 65 years of age or older; and the COPD participants had moderate to severe physician-diagnosed COPD. Personal exposures to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5), sulfate (SO(4)2-), elemental carbon (EC), ozone (03), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were measured simultaneously for 24 hours/day. All subjects were monitored for 8 to 12 consecutive days. The primary objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the personal particulate and gaseous exposures for individuals sensitive to PM health effects and (2) to assess the appropriateness of exposure assessment strategies for use in PM epidemiologic studies. Personal exposures to multiple pollutants and ambient concentrations were measured for subjects from each cohort from each location. Pollutant data were analyzed using correlation and mixed-model regression analyses. In Baltimore, personal PM2.5 exposures tended to be comparable to (and frequently lower than) corresponding ambient concentrations; in Boston, the personal exposures were frequently higher. Overall, personal exposures to the gaseous pollutants, especially O3 and SO2, were considerably lower than corresponding ambient concentrations because of the lack of indoor sources for these gases and their high removal rate on indoor surfaces. Further, the impact of ambient particles on personal exposure (the infiltration factor) and differences in infiltration factor by city, season, and cohort were investigated. No difference in infiltration factor was found among the cohorts, which suggests that all subjects were exposed to the same fraction of ambient PM2.5 for a given ambient concentration. In addition, the results show significant correlations between ambient PM2.5 concentrations and corresponding personal exposures over time and provide further indication that ambient gaseous pollutant concentrations may be better surrogates for personal PM2.5 exposures, especially personal exposures to PM2.5 of ambient origin, than their respective personal exposures. These results have important implications for PM health effects studies that use regression models including both ambient PM2.5 and gaseous pollutant concentrations as independent variables, because both parameters may be serving as surrogates for PM2.5 exposures. SN - 1041-5505 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16541849/Characterization_of_particulate_and_gas_exposures_of_sensitive_subpopulations_living_in_Baltimore_and_Boston_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -