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Leech infestation and its association with water drinking habits.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2006 Mar; 16(3):175-8.JC

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the common presentations of leech infestation in leech endemic areas of Pakistan and to establish its association with unsafe water drinking habits of the individual.

DESIGN

A cohort study.

PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY

CMH, Kohat, between 1st February 1997 and 30th April 2002.

PATIENTS AND METHODS

Fourteen patients with leech infestation who reported to ENT department of CMH, Kohat, during the above period were selected for study. A specific comparison of their water drinking habits was made with a control group of 42 normal individuals who had come from the same leech endemic area as the first group and belonged to the same socioeconomic class.

RESULTS

Twelve cases (83.4%) in the first group had unsafe water drinking habit i.e. they drank water directly from marshes without seeing its contents substituting cupped palm of hand for a drinking cup. This was in contrast to the control group where only 6 individuals (14%) gave a history of unsafe water drinking habits. Nose was the most common ENT site of leech infestation (71%) with epistaxis being the most prominent symptom. Other sites included hypopharynx (14%), nasopharynx (7 %) and oropharynx (7 %). All the 14 cases with leech infestation were males, 26.09 years being the mean age. The association between patient s unsafe water drinking habits and leech infestation in ENT region was statistically proved with odds ratio being 36.

CONCLUSION

Epistaxis or any other related symptom must be taken with suspicion in leech endemic area. This condition is closely related to unsafe water drinking habits, therefore, the incidence of this infestation can be significantly reduced by educating the individuals to adopt safe water drinking habits.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of ENT, Combined Military Hospital, Lahore. razanusrat@hotmail.comNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16542595

Citation

Raza, Syed Nusrat, et al. "Leech Infestation and Its Association With Water Drinking Habits." Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP, vol. 16, no. 3, 2006, pp. 175-8.
Raza SN, Shabbir SM, Anwar-ul-Haq. Leech infestation and its association with water drinking habits. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2006;16(3):175-8.
Raza, S. N., & Shabbir, S. M. (2006). Leech infestation and its association with water drinking habits. Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP, 16(3), 175-8.
Raza SN, Shabbir SM, Anwar-ul-Haq. Leech Infestation and Its Association With Water Drinking Habits. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2006;16(3):175-8. PubMed PMID: 16542595.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Leech infestation and its association with water drinking habits. AU - Raza,Syed Nusrat, AU - Shabbir,Syed Muhammad Asad, AU - ,, PY - 2004/11/24/received PY - 2006/02/16/accepted PY - 2006/3/18/pubmed PY - 2007/1/5/medline PY - 2006/3/18/entrez SP - 175 EP - 8 JF - Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP JO - J Coll Physicians Surg Pak VL - 16 IS - 3 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To assess the common presentations of leech infestation in leech endemic areas of Pakistan and to establish its association with unsafe water drinking habits of the individual. DESIGN: A cohort study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: CMH, Kohat, between 1st February 1997 and 30th April 2002. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fourteen patients with leech infestation who reported to ENT department of CMH, Kohat, during the above period were selected for study. A specific comparison of their water drinking habits was made with a control group of 42 normal individuals who had come from the same leech endemic area as the first group and belonged to the same socioeconomic class. RESULTS: Twelve cases (83.4%) in the first group had unsafe water drinking habit i.e. they drank water directly from marshes without seeing its contents substituting cupped palm of hand for a drinking cup. This was in contrast to the control group where only 6 individuals (14%) gave a history of unsafe water drinking habits. Nose was the most common ENT site of leech infestation (71%) with epistaxis being the most prominent symptom. Other sites included hypopharynx (14%), nasopharynx (7 %) and oropharynx (7 %). All the 14 cases with leech infestation were males, 26.09 years being the mean age. The association between patient s unsafe water drinking habits and leech infestation in ENT region was statistically proved with odds ratio being 36. CONCLUSION: Epistaxis or any other related symptom must be taken with suspicion in leech endemic area. This condition is closely related to unsafe water drinking habits, therefore, the incidence of this infestation can be significantly reduced by educating the individuals to adopt safe water drinking habits. SN - 1022-386X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16542595/Leech_infestation_and_its_association_with_water_drinking_habits_ L2 - https://medlineplus.gov/throatdisorders.html DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -