[Cutaneous manifestations of chronic hemodialysis. Prospective study of 363 cases].Presse Med 2006; 35(3 Pt 1):399-406PM
Chronic hemodialysis patients experience frequent and varied cutaneous manifestations, of often hypothetical pathogenesis. The aim of this work is to assess the prevalence and nature of these cutaneous lesions and discuss some pathogenic mechanisms.
This prospective study was conducted from 1 February through 30 April 1996. It included 363 hemodialysis patients in seven centers. Each patient was interviewed and examined.
There were 210 men and 153 women. Their mean age was 50.6 years. The total duration of hemodialysis ranged from 1 to 192 months, with a mean of 52.4 months. 88% of the patients had cutaneous manifestations. Pruritus was reported by 44.8%. It appeared after hemodialysis began for 82.1% of them. Cutaneous xerosis was observed in 69%. Changes in pigmentation were observed in 17% of cases, primarily involving hyperpigmentation of photo-exposed areas. In 6 patients, skin, hair, and exoskeleton began to turn lighter 10 months to 8 years after hemodialysis. Follicular hyperkeratosis was observed in 15%. One patient had a confirmed case of perforating follicular dermatosis. Disorders of the exoskeleton (18.5% of cases) were represented mainly by thin nails and subungual hemorrhages. Other cutaneous manifestations included petechiae and ecchymoses (66%), folliculitis-type infections (9%), subcutaneous calcifications (2 cases), cutaneous pseudoporphyria (2 cases), and eczema around the fistula (11.5%), due essentially to locally-applied products.
Cutaneous manifestations in chronic hemodialysis patients are frequent and polymorphous. While most have long been known, lightening of skin, in particular, others have been discovered more recently. Their pathogenesis is most often poorly elucidated. Treatment is often symptomatic. Dialysis and renal transplantation constitute the best treatment.