A synthetic triterpenoid, CDDO-Me, inhibits IkappaBalpha kinase and enhances apoptosis induced by TNF and chemotherapeutic agents through down-regulation of expression of nuclear factor kappaB-regulated gene products in human leukemic cells.Clin Cancer Res. 2006 Mar 15; 12(6):1828-38.CC
The C-28 methyl ester of 2-cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO-Me), a synthetic triterpenoid based on naturally occurring ursolic and oleanolic acids, induces apoptosis in tumor cells, induces differentiation, and inhibits inflammatory response through a poorly understood mechanism. Because the nuclear transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) has been shown to suppress apoptosis and promote proliferation and is linked with inflammation and differentiation, we postulated that CDDO-Me modulates NF-kappaB activity and NF-kappaB-regulated gene expression. Using human leukemia cell lines and patient samples, we show that CDDO-Me potently inhibits both constitutive and inducible NF-kappaB activated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1beta, phorbol ester, okadaic acid, hydrogen peroxide, lipopolysaccharide, and cigarette smoke. CDDO-Me was more potent than CDDO and its imidazole derivative. NF-kappaB suppression occurred through inhibition of IkappaBalpha kinase activation, IkappaBalpha phosphorylation, IkappaBalpha degradation, p65 phosphorylation, p65 nuclear translocation, and NF-kappaB-mediated reporter gene transcription. This inhibition correlated with suppression of NF-kappaB-dependent genes involved in antiapoptosis (IAP2, cFLIP, TRAF1, survivin, and bcl-2), proliferation (cyclin d1 and c-myc), and angiogenesis (VEGF, cox-2, and mmp-9). CDDO-Me also potentiated the cytotoxic effects of TNF and chemotherapeutic agents. Overall, our results suggest that CDDO-Me inhibits NF-kappaB through inhibition of IkappaBalpha kinase, leading to the suppression of expression of NF-kappaB-regulated gene products and enhancement of apoptosis induced by TNF and chemotherapeutic agents.