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Chronic systemic D-galactose exposure induces memory loss, neurodegeneration, and oxidative damage in mice: protective effects of R-alpha-lipoic acid.
J Neurosci Res. 2006 Jun; 83(8):1584-90.JN

Abstract

Chronic systemic exposure of D-galactose to mice, rats, and Drosophila causes the acceleration of senescence and has been used as an aging model. However, the underlying mechanism is as yet unclear. To investigate the mechanisms of neurodegeneration in this model, we studied cognitive function, hippocampal neuronal apoptosis and neurogenesis, and peripheral oxidative stress biomarkers and also the protective effects of the antioxidant R-alpha-lipoic acid. Chronic systemic exposure of mice to D-galactose (100 mg/kg, s.c., 7 weeks) induced a spatial memory deficit, an increase in cell karyopyknosis, apoptosis, and caspase-3 protein levels in hippocampal neurons, a decrease in the number of new neurons in the subgranular zone in the dentate gyrus, a reduction of migration of neural progenitor cells, and an increase in death of newly formed neurons in the granular cell layer. The D-galactose exposure also induced an increase in peripheral oxidative stress, including an increase in malondialdehyde and decreases in total antioxidative capabilities (T-AOC), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities. A concomitant treatment with lipoic acid ameliorated cognitive dysfunction and neurodegeneration in the hippocampus and also reduced peripheral oxidative damage by decreasing malondialdehyde and increasing T-AOC and T-SOD, without an effect on GSH-Px. These findings suggest that chronic D-galactose exposure induces neurodegeneration by enhancing caspase-mediated apoptosis and inhibiting neurogenesis and neuron migration, as well as increasing oxidative damage. In addition, D-galactose-induced toxicity in mice is a useful model for studying the mechanisms of neurodegeneration and neuroprotective drugs and agents.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16555301

Citation

Cui, Xu, et al. "Chronic Systemic D-galactose Exposure Induces Memory Loss, Neurodegeneration, and Oxidative Damage in Mice: Protective Effects of R-alpha-lipoic Acid." Journal of Neuroscience Research, vol. 83, no. 8, 2006, pp. 1584-90.
Cui X, Zuo P, Zhang Q, et al. Chronic systemic D-galactose exposure induces memory loss, neurodegeneration, and oxidative damage in mice: protective effects of R-alpha-lipoic acid. J Neurosci Res. 2006;83(8):1584-90.
Cui, X., Zuo, P., Zhang, Q., Li, X., Hu, Y., Long, J., Packer, L., & Liu, J. (2006). Chronic systemic D-galactose exposure induces memory loss, neurodegeneration, and oxidative damage in mice: protective effects of R-alpha-lipoic acid. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 83(8), 1584-90.
Cui X, et al. Chronic Systemic D-galactose Exposure Induces Memory Loss, Neurodegeneration, and Oxidative Damage in Mice: Protective Effects of R-alpha-lipoic Acid. J Neurosci Res. 2006;83(8):1584-90. PubMed PMID: 16555301.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Chronic systemic D-galactose exposure induces memory loss, neurodegeneration, and oxidative damage in mice: protective effects of R-alpha-lipoic acid. AU - Cui,Xu, AU - Zuo,Pingping, AU - Zhang,Qing, AU - Li,Xuekun, AU - Hu,Yazhuo, AU - Long,Jiangang, AU - Packer,Lester, AU - Liu,Jiankang, PY - 2006/3/24/pubmed PY - 2006/9/9/medline PY - 2006/3/24/entrez SP - 1584 EP - 90 JF - Journal of neuroscience research JO - J Neurosci Res VL - 83 IS - 8 N2 - Chronic systemic exposure of D-galactose to mice, rats, and Drosophila causes the acceleration of senescence and has been used as an aging model. However, the underlying mechanism is as yet unclear. To investigate the mechanisms of neurodegeneration in this model, we studied cognitive function, hippocampal neuronal apoptosis and neurogenesis, and peripheral oxidative stress biomarkers and also the protective effects of the antioxidant R-alpha-lipoic acid. Chronic systemic exposure of mice to D-galactose (100 mg/kg, s.c., 7 weeks) induced a spatial memory deficit, an increase in cell karyopyknosis, apoptosis, and caspase-3 protein levels in hippocampal neurons, a decrease in the number of new neurons in the subgranular zone in the dentate gyrus, a reduction of migration of neural progenitor cells, and an increase in death of newly formed neurons in the granular cell layer. The D-galactose exposure also induced an increase in peripheral oxidative stress, including an increase in malondialdehyde and decreases in total antioxidative capabilities (T-AOC), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities. A concomitant treatment with lipoic acid ameliorated cognitive dysfunction and neurodegeneration in the hippocampus and also reduced peripheral oxidative damage by decreasing malondialdehyde and increasing T-AOC and T-SOD, without an effect on GSH-Px. These findings suggest that chronic D-galactose exposure induces neurodegeneration by enhancing caspase-mediated apoptosis and inhibiting neurogenesis and neuron migration, as well as increasing oxidative damage. In addition, D-galactose-induced toxicity in mice is a useful model for studying the mechanisms of neurodegeneration and neuroprotective drugs and agents. SN - 0360-4012 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16555301/Chronic_systemic_D_galactose_exposure_induces_memory_loss_neurodegeneration_and_oxidative_damage_in_mice:_protective_effects_of_R_alpha_lipoic_acid_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/jnr.20845 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -