Epididymo-orchitis caused by intravesically instillated bacillus Calmette-Guérin: genetically proven using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction method.Int J Urol. 2006 Feb; 13(2):183-5.IJ
The intravesical instillation of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is a standard therapy for superficial bladder carcinoma. Tuberculosis-like inflammation in the genitourinary tract is a serious complication of BCG. It can occur after a long interval from the cessation of the intravesical BCG therapy. If inflammation occurs, it is necessary to test whether the BCG strain has caused it or another mycobacterium species has. However, there has never been a report that proves BCG causes the inflammation, because BCG is difficult to differentiate from other strains of Mycobacterium bovis and other members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by conventional tests, including regular polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We first present a case of epididymo-orchitis, which developed 31 months after the cessation of BCG therapy, detected using a multiplex PCR method as having been caused by BCG. Our report illustrates the efficacy of this method to detect the responsible microbe that is thought to be transmitted from the instillated BCG strain.