Antioxidant properties of Teaw (Cratoxylum formosum Dyer) extract in soybean oil and emulsions.J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Apr 05; 54(7):2719-25.JA
The antioxidant activity of an extract from Teaw (Cratoxylum formosum Dyer) leaves was studied in soybean oil and soybean oil-in-water emulsions. Samples containing the extract or reference antioxidants including chlorogenic acid, which comprises 60% of the Teaw extract, were stored at 60 degrees C and analyzed periodically for peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) to allow both hydroperoxides and hydroperoxide degradation products to be monitored. Chlorogenic acid and the Teaw extract were more effective than alpha-tocopherol in inhibiting lipid oxidation in bulk oil but were less effective in an oil-in-water emulsion in accordance with the polar paradox. The PV/TBARS ratio for oil samples containing chlorogenic acid was higher than for alpha-tocopherol and BHT because chlorogenic acid inhibits both hydroperoxide formation by radical scavenging and hydroperoxide decomposition by metal chelation. The importance of the metal-chelating activity in retarding hydroperoxide decomposition was confirmed by studying the decomposition of oil samples containing added ferric ions. The PV/TBARS ratio was higher for citric acid than for alpha-tocopherol in the presence of added ferric chloride, but the order was reversed in samples lacking ferric chloride. Samples containing added chlorogenic acid gave the highest PV/TBARS ratios both in the presence and absence of ferric ions. The PV/TBARS ratios for the samples containing antioxidants fell rapidly to lower values in a soybean oil-in-water emulsion than in the soybean oil. This was due to increased hydroperoxide decomposition in the emulsion at the same PV. The Teaw extract contained 12% oil-soluble components, which contributed to a slightly higher oil-water partition coefficient than that of chlorogenic acid. The antioxidant activity of the aqueous phase of the Teaw extract was reduced more than that of chlorogenic acid by partitioning of the oil-soluble components into oil, which showed that the less-polar components contributed to the antioxidant activity of the Teaw extract in aqueous media.