[Recombinant viruses of poultry as vector vaccines against fowl plague].Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2006 Mar-Apr; 119(3-4):160-6.BM
To help in the control of fowl plague caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses of hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes H5 and H7 several vaccines have been developed. A prophylactic immunization of poultry with inactivated influenza viruses in non-endemic situations is questionable, however, due to the impairment of serological identification of field virus-infected animals which hinders elimination of the infectious agent from the population. This problem might be overcome by the use of genetically engineered marker vaccines which contain only the protective influenza virus hemagglutinin. Infected animals could then be unambiguously identified by their serum antibodies against other influenza virus proteins, e.g. neuraminidase or nucleoprotein. For such a use, purified HA or HA-expressing DNA vaccines are conceivable. Economically advantageous and easier to apply are modified live virus vaccines in use against other poultry diseases, which have been modified to express influenza virus HA. So far, recombinant HA-expressing fowlpox virus (FPV) as well as infectious laryngotracheitis and Newcastle disease viruses have been asssessed in animal experiments. An H5-expressing FPV recombinant is already in use in Central America and Southeast Asia but without accompanying marker diagnostics. Advantages and disadvantages of the different viral vectors are discussed.