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Vegetarian diets : nutritional considerations for athletes.
Sports Med. 2006; 36(4):293-305.SM

Abstract

The quality of vegetarian diets to meet nutritional needs and support peak performance among athletes continues to be questioned. Appropriately planned vegetarian diets can provide sufficient energy and an appropriate range of carbohydrate, fat and protein intakes to support performance and health. The acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges for carbohydrate, fat and protein of 45-65%, 20-35% and 10-35%, respectively, are appropriate for vegetarian and non-vegetarian athletes alike, especially those who perform endurance events. Vegetarian athletes can meet their protein needs from predominantly or exclusively plant-based sources when a variety of these foods are consumed daily and energy intake is adequate. Muscle creatine stores are lower in vegetarians than non-vegetarians. Creatine supplementation provides ergogenic responses in both vegetarian and non-vegetarian athletes, with limited data supporting greater ergogenic effects on lean body mass accretion and work performance for vegetarians. The potential adverse effect of a vegetarian diet on iron status is based on the bioavailability of iron from plant foods rather than the amount of total iron present in the diet. Vegetarian and non-vegetarian athletes alike must consume sufficient iron to prevent deficiency, which will adversely affect performance. Other nutrients of concern for vegetarian athletes include zinc, vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), vitamin D (cholecalciferol) and calcium. The main sources of these nutrients are animal products; however, they can be found in many food sources suitable for vegetarians, including fortified soy milk and whole grain cereals. Vegetarians have higher antioxidant status for vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin E (tocopherol), and beta-carotene than omnivores, which might help reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress. Research is needed comparing antioxidant defences in vegetarian and non-vegetarian athletes.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Foods and Nutrition, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906-2059, USA.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16573356

Citation

Venderley, Angela M., and Wayne W. Campbell. "Vegetarian Diets : Nutritional Considerations for Athletes." Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), vol. 36, no. 4, 2006, pp. 293-305.
Venderley AM, Campbell WW. Vegetarian diets : nutritional considerations for athletes. Sports Med. 2006;36(4):293-305.
Venderley, A. M., & Campbell, W. W. (2006). Vegetarian diets : nutritional considerations for athletes. Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), 36(4), 293-305.
Venderley AM, Campbell WW. Vegetarian Diets : Nutritional Considerations for Athletes. Sports Med. 2006;36(4):293-305. PubMed PMID: 16573356.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Vegetarian diets : nutritional considerations for athletes. AU - Venderley,Angela M, AU - Campbell,Wayne W, PY - 2006/4/1/pubmed PY - 2006/9/29/medline PY - 2006/4/1/entrez SP - 293 EP - 305 JF - Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.) JO - Sports Med VL - 36 IS - 4 N2 - The quality of vegetarian diets to meet nutritional needs and support peak performance among athletes continues to be questioned. Appropriately planned vegetarian diets can provide sufficient energy and an appropriate range of carbohydrate, fat and protein intakes to support performance and health. The acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges for carbohydrate, fat and protein of 45-65%, 20-35% and 10-35%, respectively, are appropriate for vegetarian and non-vegetarian athletes alike, especially those who perform endurance events. Vegetarian athletes can meet their protein needs from predominantly or exclusively plant-based sources when a variety of these foods are consumed daily and energy intake is adequate. Muscle creatine stores are lower in vegetarians than non-vegetarians. Creatine supplementation provides ergogenic responses in both vegetarian and non-vegetarian athletes, with limited data supporting greater ergogenic effects on lean body mass accretion and work performance for vegetarians. The potential adverse effect of a vegetarian diet on iron status is based on the bioavailability of iron from plant foods rather than the amount of total iron present in the diet. Vegetarian and non-vegetarian athletes alike must consume sufficient iron to prevent deficiency, which will adversely affect performance. Other nutrients of concern for vegetarian athletes include zinc, vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), vitamin D (cholecalciferol) and calcium. The main sources of these nutrients are animal products; however, they can be found in many food sources suitable for vegetarians, including fortified soy milk and whole grain cereals. Vegetarians have higher antioxidant status for vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin E (tocopherol), and beta-carotene than omnivores, which might help reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress. Research is needed comparing antioxidant defences in vegetarian and non-vegetarian athletes. SN - 0112-1642 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16573356/Vegetarian_diets_:_nutritional_considerations_for_athletes_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200636040-00002 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -