Relationship between plasma carotenoids and prostate cancer.Nutr Cancer 2005; 53(2):127-34NC
Carotenoids, particularly lycopene, are thought to decrease prostate cancer risk, but the relationship between plasma carotenoid concentrations and risk in various populations has not been well characterized. Comparing 118 non-Hispanic Caucasian men mainly from southeast Texas with nonmetastatic prostate cancer with 52 healthy men from the same area, we conducted a case-control analysis evaluating associations between risk and plasma levels of total carotenoids, beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha- and trans-beta-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin, total lycopenes, trans-lycopene, total cis-lycopenes, and cis-lycopene isoforms 1, 2, 3, and 5. Risk for men with high plasma levels of alpha-carotene, trans-beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lutein and zeaxanthin was less than half that for those with lower levels. In contrast, we observed no significant associations for total lycopenes, all-trans-lycopene, and cis-lycopene isomer peaks 2, 3, and 5, although high levels of cis-lycopene isomer peak 1 were inversely associated with risk. Analysis of men with aggressive disease (Gleason scores of > or =7, n = 88) vs. less aggressive cases (Gleason scores of <7, n = 30) failed to reveal significant associations between carotenoid levels and the risk of diagnosis with aggressive disease. These findings suggest that, in these men, higher circulating levels of alpha-cryptoxanthin, alpha-carotene, trans-beta-carotene, and lutein and zeaxanthin may contribute to lower prostate cancer risk but not to disease progression.