Chronic beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation induces cardiac apoptosis and aggravates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury by provoking inducible nitric-oxide synthase-mediated nitrative stress.J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Aug; 318(2):469-75.JP
The present study provides evidence that inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS)-mediated nitrative stress plays a pivotal role in chronic beta-adrenergic receptor (AR) stimulation-induced cardiac damage. In mice, 14 days of isoproterenol (ISO) stimulation via an osmotic minipump induced an up-regulation of iNOS as evidenced by increases in mRNA, protein expression, and immunochemical staining of myocardial iNOS. Serum level of C-reactive protein, an inflammatory mediator, was also markedly increased. Under chronic ISO stimulation, the up-regulated iNOS produced a significantly increased amount of nitric oxide (NO) and its byproduct, peroxynitrite, in the circulation and heart and subsequently resulted in an accelerated myocardial apoptosis. Forty-minute myocardial ischemia (MI) and 24-h reperfusion (R) further increased NO production and peroxynitrite formation and resulted in an enlarged infarct size in mice receiving chronic ISO stimulation. However, the treatment with a selective iNOS inhibitor [N-(3-(aminomethyl) benzyl)acetamidine] (1400W) or the use of a genetic modified animal (iNOS-knockout mice) markedly reduced iNOS-mediated production of NO and formation of peroxynitrite and consequently significantly decreased myocardial apoptosis and infarct size, showing a crucial link between iNOS-mediated nitrative stress and myocardial injury. In conclusion, chronic beta-AR stimulation up-regulates iNOS expression and increases NO production in the heart, which subsequently markedly enhances formation of reactive nitrogen species/peroxynitrite in the heart, thereby eliciting myocardial apoptosis and potentiating MI/R injury.