Dural sinus thrombosis in melioidosis: the first case report.J Med Assoc Thai. 2006 Feb; 89(2):242-7.JM
Melioidosis which is infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei, is an important cause of sepsis in India, southeast Asia and northern Australia. Mortality is high and treatment is problematic. Neurological melioidosis is unusual but meningoencephalitis, encephalomyelitis and brain microabscess can occur Dural sinus thrombosis is not an uncommon cerebrovascular disorder with various etiologies. Hypercoagulable state, pregnancy, dehydration, certain blood dyscrasia and contraceptive pills are common causes however meningitis and local head & neck infections may lead to this condition. Dural sinus thrombosis complicating septicemic melioidosis has never been reported. The authors report a 42-year-old Thai man suffering from septicemic melioidosis with dural sinus thrombosis. He had high fever, headache, left hemiparesis, focal seizure and increased intracranial pressure. Diabetes and mild alcoholic cirrhosis were diagnosed in this admission. CT scan, MRI brain and MRV revealed superior saggital sinus thrombosis with complicating venous infarction over right posterior parietal lobe. Hemoculture demonstrated Burkholderia pseudomallei and CSF was acellular Investigations for causes of dural sinus thrombosis were all negative. This patient gradually improved after treatment with ceftazidime, antiepileptic drug and heparin without clinical recurrence. Neuromelioidosis is a rare syndrome that may present as brain abscess, encephalitis or meningoencephalitis. The authors report dural sinus thrombosis associated with septicemic melioidosis. The authors' hypothesis of venous thrombosis in the presented case is sepsis induced hypercoagulable state. Physicians should be aware of cerebral venous thrombosis in case of suspicious melioidosis with neurological involvement. Prompt treatment with intravenous heparin and antibiotic is potentially effective.