A new cercaria and metacercaria of Acanthoparyphium (Echinostomatidae) found in an intertidal snail Zeacumantus subcarinatus (Batillaridae) from New Zealand.Parasitol Int. 2006 Sep; 55(3):163-7.PI
A new 23-collar-spined cercaria and metacercaria are described from intertidal molluscs of the coast of New Zealand. The new cercaria found emerging from the mud snails Zeacumantus subcarinatus (Sowerby) (Prosobranchia: Batillariidae) is characterized mainly by the number and arrangement of the cephalic glands, the size of the suckers, and the size and number of the collar spines. The cercaria encysts in the cockle Austrovenus stutchburyi (Wood) (Bivalvia: Veneridae) which lives in sympatry with the first intermediate host throughout New Zealand. Laboratory infections of cockles by cercariae from naturally infected snails resulted in metacercariae identical to those found in naturally infected cockles. The main features of the cercaria and metacercaria are the presence of a reniform collar with 23 spines, two pairs of small cephalic glands at the oral sucker level, another two pairs of much longer ones posterior to the pharynx, and the excretory vesicle Y-shaped with the main collecting canals extending to the anterior level of the ventral sucker. Each of the main collecting canals had 10-11 pairs of bilateral diverticula between the anterior edge of the ventral sucker and anterior body end. A brief discussion of its possible life cycle and ecology is also provided.