Estrogen up-regulates neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor expression in a human breast cancer cell line.Cancer Res. 2006 Apr 01; 66(7):3706-14.CR
Normal breast tissue mainly expresses the neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y2 receptor whereas primary human breast carcinomas express the Y1 receptor (Y1R) subtype. We hypothesized that activation of estrogen signaling systems plays a role in the induction of Y1R. To investigate this possibility, we used estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) human breast carcinoma cell line, MCF-7, and examined the effect of estrogen on Y1R gene expression and its signaling pathways. Saturation binding studies revealed that MCF-7 cells express high-affinity NPY receptor. NPY inhibited forskolin-stimulated adenosine 3'5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation and mobilized intracellular Ca(2+) in MCF-7 cells. Chronic estrogen treatment enhanced NPY-mediated inhibition of cAMP accumulation by 4-fold and caused a significant increase in Y1R mRNA expression through ERalpha. Similarly, estrogen increased Y1R mRNA expression in T-47D (ER+) but not in MDA-MB231 or MDA-MB468 (ER-) cell lines. Cycloheximide decreased basal Y1R mRNA expression; however, it did not affect its increase by estrogen. Moreover, estrogen treatment of MCF-7 cells did not increase Y1R mRNA stability. The up-regulation of Y1R expression by estrogen is prevented by hydroxyurea but not by nocodazole or IB-MECA (cell cycle inhibitors). Lastly, NPY inhibited estrogen-induced cell proliferation through Y1R. In conclusion, MCF-7 cells express a functional Y1R coupled to both Ca(2+) and cAMP pathways. Estrogen up-regulates Y1R expression through ERalpha. This effect is independent of increased Y1R mRNA stability or new protein synthesis, and likely occurs during S phase completion of the cell cycle. Estrogen plays an important role in the up-regulation of Y1R, which in turn regulates estrogen-induced cell proliferation in breast cancer cells.