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The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Despite growing interest in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about its prevalence or correlates.

METHOD

A screen for adult ADHD was included in a probability subsample (N=3,199) of 18-44-year-old respondents in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative household survey that used a lay-administered diagnostic interview to assess a wide range of DSM-IV disorders. Blinded clinical follow-up interviews of adult ADHD were carried out with 154 respondents, oversampling those with positive screen results. Multiple imputation was used to estimate prevalence and correlates of clinician-assessed adult ADHD.

RESULTS

The estimated prevalence of current adult ADHD was 4.4%. Significant correlates included being male, previously married, unemployed, and non-Hispanic white. Adult ADHD was highly comorbid with many other DSM-IV disorders assessed in the survey and was associated with substantial role impairment. The majority of cases were untreated, although many individuals had obtained treatment for other comorbid mental and substance-related disorders.

CONCLUSIONS

Efforts are needed to increase the detection and treatment of adult ADHD. Research is needed to determine whether effective treatment would reduce the onset, persistence, and severity of disorders that co-occur with adult ADHD.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, 180 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA 02115, USA. kessler@hcp.med.harvard.edu

    , , , , , , , , , , , ,

    Source

    The American journal of psychiatry 163:4 2006 Apr pg 716-23

    MeSH

    Adolescent
    Adult
    Age Factors
    Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
    Comorbidity
    Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry)
    European Continental Ancestry Group
    Female
    Follow-Up Studies
    Health Surveys
    Humans
    Male
    Mental Disorders
    Prevalence
    Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
    Risk Factors
    Sex Factors
    Substance-Related Disorders
    Unemployment
    United States

    Pub Type(s)

    Comparative Study
    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    16585449

    Citation

    Kessler, Ronald C., et al. "The Prevalence and Correlates of Adult ADHD in the United States: Results From the National Comorbidity Survey Replication." The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 163, no. 4, 2006, pp. 716-23.
    Kessler RC, Adler L, Barkley R, et al. The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163(4):716-23.
    Kessler, R. C., Adler, L., Barkley, R., Biederman, J., Conners, C. K., Demler, O., ... Zaslavsky, A. M. (2006). The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(4), pp. 716-23.
    Kessler RC, et al. The Prevalence and Correlates of Adult ADHD in the United States: Results From the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163(4):716-23. PubMed PMID: 16585449.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. AU - Kessler,Ronald C, AU - Adler,Lenard, AU - Barkley,Russell, AU - Biederman,Joseph, AU - Conners,C Keith, AU - Demler,Olga, AU - Faraone,Stephen V, AU - Greenhill,Laurence L, AU - Howes,Mary J, AU - Secnik,Kristina, AU - Spencer,Thomas, AU - Ustun,T Bedirhan, AU - Walters,Ellen E, AU - Zaslavsky,Alan M, PY - 2006/4/6/pubmed PY - 2006/5/25/medline PY - 2006/4/6/entrez SP - 716 EP - 23 JF - The American journal of psychiatry JO - Am J Psychiatry VL - 163 IS - 4 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Despite growing interest in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about its prevalence or correlates. METHOD: A screen for adult ADHD was included in a probability subsample (N=3,199) of 18-44-year-old respondents in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative household survey that used a lay-administered diagnostic interview to assess a wide range of DSM-IV disorders. Blinded clinical follow-up interviews of adult ADHD were carried out with 154 respondents, oversampling those with positive screen results. Multiple imputation was used to estimate prevalence and correlates of clinician-assessed adult ADHD. RESULTS: The estimated prevalence of current adult ADHD was 4.4%. Significant correlates included being male, previously married, unemployed, and non-Hispanic white. Adult ADHD was highly comorbid with many other DSM-IV disorders assessed in the survey and was associated with substantial role impairment. The majority of cases were untreated, although many individuals had obtained treatment for other comorbid mental and substance-related disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts are needed to increase the detection and treatment of adult ADHD. Research is needed to determine whether effective treatment would reduce the onset, persistence, and severity of disorders that co-occur with adult ADHD. SN - 0002-953X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16585449/full_citation L2 - https://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/full/10.1176/ajp.2006.163.4.716?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -