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Cannabinoids and the digestive tract.

Abstract

In the digestive tract there is evidence for the presence of high levels of endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and enzymes involved in the synthesis and metabolism of endocannabinoids. Immunohistochemical studies have shown the presence of CB1 receptors on myenteric and submucosal nerve plexuses along the alimentary tract. Pharmacological studies have shown that activation of CB1 receptors produces relaxation of the lower oesophageal sphincter, inhibition of gastric motility and acid secretion, as well as intestinal motility and secretion. In general, CB1-induced inhibition of intestinal motility and secretion is due to reduced acetylcholine release from enteric nerves. Conversely, endocannabinoids stimulate intestinal primary sensory neurons via the vanilloid VR1 receptor, resulting in enteritis and enhanced motility. The endogenous cannabinoid system has been found to be involved in the physiological control of colonic motility and in some pathophysiological states, including paralytic ileus, intestinal inflammation and cholera toxin-induced diarrhoea. Cannabinoids also possess antiemetic effects mediated by activation of central and peripheral CB1 receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the endogenous cannabinoid system could provide a new therapeutic target for the treatment of a number of gastrointestinal diseases, including nausea and vomiting, gastric ulcers, secretory diarrhoea, paralytic ileus, inflammatory bowel disease, colon cancer and gastro-oesophageal reflux conditions.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Experimental Pharmacology, University of Naples Federico II, via D Montesano 49, 80131 Naples, Italy.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16596788

Citation

Izzo, A A., and A A. Coutts. "Cannabinoids and the Digestive Tract." Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, 2005, pp. 573-98.
Izzo AA, Coutts AA. Cannabinoids and the digestive tract. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2005.
Izzo, A. A., & Coutts, A. A. (2005). Cannabinoids and the digestive tract. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, (168), 573-98.
Izzo AA, Coutts AA. Cannabinoids and the Digestive Tract. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2005;(168)573-98. PubMed PMID: 16596788.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cannabinoids and the digestive tract. AU - Izzo,A A, AU - Coutts,A A, PY - 2006/4/7/pubmed PY - 2006/4/20/medline PY - 2006/4/7/entrez SP - 573 EP - 98 JF - Handbook of experimental pharmacology JO - Handb Exp Pharmacol IS - 168 N2 - In the digestive tract there is evidence for the presence of high levels of endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and enzymes involved in the synthesis and metabolism of endocannabinoids. Immunohistochemical studies have shown the presence of CB1 receptors on myenteric and submucosal nerve plexuses along the alimentary tract. Pharmacological studies have shown that activation of CB1 receptors produces relaxation of the lower oesophageal sphincter, inhibition of gastric motility and acid secretion, as well as intestinal motility and secretion. In general, CB1-induced inhibition of intestinal motility and secretion is due to reduced acetylcholine release from enteric nerves. Conversely, endocannabinoids stimulate intestinal primary sensory neurons via the vanilloid VR1 receptor, resulting in enteritis and enhanced motility. The endogenous cannabinoid system has been found to be involved in the physiological control of colonic motility and in some pathophysiological states, including paralytic ileus, intestinal inflammation and cholera toxin-induced diarrhoea. Cannabinoids also possess antiemetic effects mediated by activation of central and peripheral CB1 receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the endogenous cannabinoid system could provide a new therapeutic target for the treatment of a number of gastrointestinal diseases, including nausea and vomiting, gastric ulcers, secretory diarrhoea, paralytic ileus, inflammatory bowel disease, colon cancer and gastro-oesophageal reflux conditions. SN - 0171-2004 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16596788/Cannabinoids_and_the_digestive_tract_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/3-540-26573-2_19 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -