Dimensions of emotion in expressive musical performance.Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Dec; 1060:462-6.AN
This paper explores the dimensions of emotion conveyed by music. Participants rated emotion terms after seeing and/or hearing recordings of clarinet performances that varied in expressive content. A factor analysis revealed four independent dimensions of emotion. Changes to the clarinetists' expressive intentions did not significantly affect emotions conveyed by sound. It was largely through the visual modality that expressive intentions influenced the experience for observers.