Superoxide dismutase and catalase inhibit oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced human aortic smooth muscle cell proliferation: role of cell-cycle regulation, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and transcription factors.Atherosclerosis. 2007 Jan; 190(1):124-34.A
Several antioxidant enzymes, including copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD) and catalase, have been suggested to be protective against the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells exposed to oxidative stress. In the present study, we investigated effects of Cu, Zn-SOD and/or catalase on oxLDL-induced proliferation of, and intracellular signaling in, human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). HASMCs were transfected with adenovirus carrying the human Cu, Zn-SOD gene and/or the human catalase gene. This resulted in a high level of Cu, Zn-SOD and/or catalase overexpression and decreased oxLDL-induced proliferation. Cu, Zn-SOD and/or catalase also arrested cell cycle progression, which was associated with decreased expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, CDK2, and CDK4 and upregulation of p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1). Phosphorylation studies on ERK1/2, JNK, and p38, three major subgroups of mitogen activator protein kinases, demonstrated that Cu, Zn-SOD and/or catalase overexpression suppressed ERK1/2 and JNK phosphorylation. Gel-mobility shift analysis showed that oxLDL caused an increase in the DNA binding activity of activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), which was inhibited by Cu, Zn-SOD and/or catalase overexpression. These results provide the first evidence that overexpression of Cu, Zn-SOD and/or catalase in HASMCs attenuates the cell proliferation caused by oxLDL stimulation and that this inhibitory effect is mediated via downregulation of ERK1/2 and JNK phosphorylation and AP-1 and NF-kappaB inactivation. These observations support the feasibility of the increase of Cu, Zn-SOD and/or catalase expression in human smooth muscle cells as a means of protection against oxidant injury.