Ketamine affects memory consolidation: differential effects in T-maze and passive avoidance paradigms in mice.Neuroscience. 2006 Jul 07; 140(3):993-1002.N
The effects of ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, on memory in animals have been limited to the sub-anesthetic dose given prior to training in previous studies. We evaluated the effects of post-training anesthetic doses of ketamine to selectively manipulate memory consolidation, and the effect of pre-retention sub-anesthetic doses of ketamine on memory retrieval in passive avoidance and T-maze tasks in mice. Repeated post-training anesthetic doses of ketamine impaired the consolidation of memory in the T-maze but not in passive avoidance paradigms. This impairment was not permanent but diminished 1-2 days after ketamine withdrawal. Sub-anesthetic post-training doses of ketamine (5 mg/kg) had no effect on memory consolidation, and larger doses (10, 20 and 50 mg/kg) did not influence the retrieval of memory in the T-maze. The data suggest that repeated anesthetic doses of ketamine block NMDA receptors and affect memory consolidation. Moreover, NMDA mechanisms antagonized by ketamine appear to be selectively involved in spatial (T-maze) memory mechanisms but may not be necessary for non-spatial (passive avoidance) memory consolidation.