Analysis of the genomic response of a wine yeast to rehydration and inoculation.Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006 Aug; 71(5):699-712.AM
We used DNA microarrays to study the transcriptome of a wine yeast before and after rehydration and during the first hours following inoculation of a synthetic must. There was a substantial transcriptional remodeling during this period, including 1,874 genes regulated more than threefold. Dried yeasts displayed an expression profile typical of respiratory-grown cells starved for nitrogen and carbon and which had been highly stressed. During rehydration, many genes involved in biosynthetic pathways, in transcription or in protein synthesis were coordinately induced while genes subject to glucose repression were down-regulated. The transcriptional response was very rapid indicating that yeast quickly recovered the capacity to sense environmental signals and to respond appropriately. Our data show that genes involved in the general stress response were repressed during rehydration while acid stress specific genes were induced probably in response to organic acid accumulation. The glycolytic genes and acid stress-responsive genes were simultaneously and transiently repressed after inoculation into the fermentation medium suggesting that regulation of glycolytic genes may correspond to an adjustment to the energetic needs of the cells. Surprisingly, inoculation into the must did not trigger a stress response despite the high concentrations of sugars.