Goal orientations and moral identity as predictors of prosocial and antisocial functioning in male association football players.J Sports Sci. 2006 May; 24(5):455-66.JS
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of task and ego goal orientation and moral identity on prosocial and antisocial judgement and behaviour in football. The interaction between task and ego orientation in predicting these variables was also examined. Participants were 210 adult male footballers (age 25 +/- 6 years) competing at recreational (n = 133) and semi-professional (n = 77) levels. They completed questionnaires measuring task and ego goal orientation, the importance of moral identity, prosocial and antisocial judgement, frequency of prosocial and antisocial behaviours in football, and social desirability. Regression analysis revealed no main effects for goal orientations and moral identity on prosocial judgement and behaviour. However, a significant interaction effect between task and ego orientation emerged in relation to prosocial judgement. Specifically, task orientation positively predicted prosocial judgement only at low levels of ego orientation. Ego orientation emerged as a positive predictor of antisocial judgement and behaviour, whereas moral identity negatively predicted these variables. The differentiation between prosocial and antisocial aspects of morality was supported. It was concluded that examining moral identity and interactions between task and ego orientation adds to our understanding of the influence of these variables on prosocial and antisocial functioning in sport.