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The continuing challenges of leprosy.
Clin Microbiol Rev. 2006 Apr; 19(2):338-81.CM

Abstract

Leprosy is best understood as two conjoined diseases. The first is a chronic mycobacterial infection that elicits an extraordinary range of cellular immune responses in humans. The second is a peripheral neuropathy that is initiated by the infection and the accompanying immunological events. The infection is curable but not preventable, and leprosy remains a major global health problem, especially in the developing world, publicity to the contrary notwithstanding. Mycobacterium leprae remains noncultivable, and for over a century leprosy has presented major challenges in the fields of microbiology, pathology, immunology, and genetics; it continues to do so today. This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of M. leprae and the host response to it, especially concerning molecular identification of M. leprae, knowledge of its genome, transcriptome, and proteome, its mechanisms of microbial resistance, and recognition of strains by variable-number tandem repeat analysis. Advances in experimental models include studies in gene knockout mice and the development of molecular techniques to explore the armadillo model. In clinical studies, notable progress has been made concerning the immunology and immunopathology of leprosy, the genetics of human resistance, mechanisms of nerve injury, and chemotherapy. In nearly all of these areas, however, leprosy remains poorly understood compared to other major bacterial diseases.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Laboratory Research Branch, National Hansen's Disease Programs, LSU-SVM, Skip Bertman Dr., Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA. dscoll1@lsu.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16614253

Citation

Scollard, D M., et al. "The Continuing Challenges of Leprosy." Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 19, no. 2, 2006, pp. 338-81.
Scollard DM, Adams LB, Gillis TP, et al. The continuing challenges of leprosy. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2006;19(2):338-81.
Scollard, D. M., Adams, L. B., Gillis, T. P., Krahenbuhl, J. L., Truman, R. W., & Williams, D. L. (2006). The continuing challenges of leprosy. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 19(2), 338-81.
Scollard DM, et al. The Continuing Challenges of Leprosy. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2006;19(2):338-81. PubMed PMID: 16614253.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The continuing challenges of leprosy. AU - Scollard,D M, AU - Adams,L B, AU - Gillis,T P, AU - Krahenbuhl,J L, AU - Truman,R W, AU - Williams,D L, PY - 2006/4/15/pubmed PY - 2006/6/9/medline PY - 2006/4/15/entrez SP - 338 EP - 81 JF - Clinical microbiology reviews JO - Clin Microbiol Rev VL - 19 IS - 2 N2 - Leprosy is best understood as two conjoined diseases. The first is a chronic mycobacterial infection that elicits an extraordinary range of cellular immune responses in humans. The second is a peripheral neuropathy that is initiated by the infection and the accompanying immunological events. The infection is curable but not preventable, and leprosy remains a major global health problem, especially in the developing world, publicity to the contrary notwithstanding. Mycobacterium leprae remains noncultivable, and for over a century leprosy has presented major challenges in the fields of microbiology, pathology, immunology, and genetics; it continues to do so today. This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of M. leprae and the host response to it, especially concerning molecular identification of M. leprae, knowledge of its genome, transcriptome, and proteome, its mechanisms of microbial resistance, and recognition of strains by variable-number tandem repeat analysis. Advances in experimental models include studies in gene knockout mice and the development of molecular techniques to explore the armadillo model. In clinical studies, notable progress has been made concerning the immunology and immunopathology of leprosy, the genetics of human resistance, mechanisms of nerve injury, and chemotherapy. In nearly all of these areas, however, leprosy remains poorly understood compared to other major bacterial diseases. SN - 0893-8512 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16614253/The_continuing_challenges_of_leprosy_ L2 - http://cmr.asm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=16614253 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -