Half-of-sites binding of orotidine 5'-phosphate and alpha-D-5-phosphorylribose 1-diphosphate to orotate phosphoribosyltransferase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae supports a novel variant of the Theorell-Chance mechanism with alternating site catalysis.Biochemistry. 2006 Apr 25; 45(16):5330-42.B
A ping-pong bi-bi kinetic mechanism ascribed to yeast orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRTase) [Victor, J., Greenberg, L. B., and Sloan, D. L. (1979) J. Biol. Chem. 254, 2647-2655] has been shown to be inoperative [Witte, J. F., Tsou, R., and McClard, R. W. (1999) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 361, 106-112]. Radiolabeled orotidine 5'-phosphate (OMP), generated in situ from [7-(14)C]-orotate and alpha-d-5-phoshorylribose 1-diphosphate (PRPP), binds tightly enough to OPRTase (a dimer composed of identical subunits) that the complex survives gel-filtration chromatography. When a sample of OMP.OPRTase is extensively dialyzed, a 1:1 (per OPRTase dimer) complex is detected by (31)P NMR. Titration of the apoenzyme with OMP yields a (31)P NMR spectrum with peaks for both free and enzyme-bound OMP when OMP is in excess; the complex maintains an OMP/enzyme ratio of 1:1 even when OMP is in substantial excess. A red shift in the UV spectrum of the OMP.OPRTase complex was exploited to measure K(d(OMP)) = 0.84 muM and to verify the 1:1 binding stoichiometry. PRPP forms a Mg(2+)-dependent 1:1 complex with the enzyme as observed by (31)P NMR. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiments revealed 1:1 stoichiometries for both OMP and Mg(2+)-PRPP with OPRTase yielding K(d) values of 0.68 and 10 microM, respectively. The binding of either 1 equiv of OMP or PRPP is mutually exclusive. ITC experiments demonstrate that the binding of OMP is largely driven by increased entropy, suggesting substantial distal disordering of the protein. Analytical gel-filtration chromatography confirms that the OMP.OPRTase complex involves the dimeric form of enzyme. The off rate for release of OMP, determined by magnetization inversion transfer, was determined to be 27 s(-)(1). This off rate is somewhat less than the k(cat) in the biosynthetic direction (about 39 s(-)(1)); thus, the release of OMP from OMP.OPRTase may not be kinetically relevant to the steady-state reaction cycle. The body of available data can be explained in terms of alternating site catalysis with either a classical Theorell-Chance mechanism or, far more likely, a novel "double Theorell-Chance" mechanism unique to alternating site catalysis, leading us to propose co-temporal binding of orotate and the release of diphosphate as well as the binding of PRPP and the release of OMP that occur via ternary complexes in alternating site fashion across the two highly cooperative subunits of the enzyme. This novel "double Theorell-Chance" mechanism yields a steady-state rate equation indistinguishable in form from the observed classical ping-pong bi-bi kinetics.