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Prenatal farm exposure is related to the expression of receptors of the innate immunity and to atopic sensitization in school-age children.
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006 Apr; 117(4):817-23.JA

Abstract

BACKGROUND

There is increasing evidence that environmental exposures determining childhood illnesses operate early in life. Prenatal exposure to a farming environment through the mother might also play an important role.

OBJECTIVE

We sought to investigate the role of maternal exposures to environments rich in microbial compounds for the development of atopic sensitization, asthma, and corresponding alterations in the innate immune system in offspring.

METHODS

In the children of the cross-sectional Prevention of Allergy Risk Factors for Sensitization in Children Related to Farming and Anthroposophic Life Style study, asthma and atopy were assessed by means of standardized questionnaires (n = 8263) and serum IgE measurements (n = 2086). In a subsample (n = 322) gene expression of Toll-like receptors (TLR2 and TLR4) and CD14 was assessed. Maternal exposures were defined through questionnaire information.

RESULTS

Both atopic sensitization (adjusted odds ratio, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.39-0.86) and the gene expression of receptors of innate immunity were strongly determined by maternal exposure to stables during pregnancy, whereas current exposures had much weaker or no effects. A dose-response relation was found between the extent of upregulation of these genes and the number of different farm animal species the mother had encountered in her pregnancy. Each additional farm animal species increased the expression of TLR2, TLR4, and CD14 by a factor of 1.16 (95% CI, 1.07-1.26), 1.12 (95% CI, 1.04-1.2), and 1.10 (95% CI, 1.03-1.23), respectively.

CONCLUSION

Maternal exposure to an environment rich in microbial compounds might protect against the development of atopic sensitization and lead to upregulation of receptors of the innate immune system. The underlying mechanisms potentially operating through the intrauterine milieu or epigenetic inheritance await further elucidation.

CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS

When assessing risk factors of allergies in an infant's medical history, attention must also be paid to environmental exposures affecting the mother.

Authors+Show Affiliations

University Children's Hospital Munich, Germany. markus.ege@med.uni-muenchen.deNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16630939

Citation

Ege, Markus Johannes, et al. "Prenatal Farm Exposure Is Related to the Expression of Receptors of the Innate Immunity and to Atopic Sensitization in School-age Children." The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 117, no. 4, 2006, pp. 817-23.
Ege MJ, Bieli C, Frei R, et al. Prenatal farm exposure is related to the expression of receptors of the innate immunity and to atopic sensitization in school-age children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;117(4):817-23.
Ege, M. J., Bieli, C., Frei, R., van Strien, R. T., Riedler, J., Ublagger, E., Schram-Bijkerk, D., Brunekreef, B., van Hage, M., Scheynius, A., Pershagen, G., Benz, M. R., Lauener, R., von Mutius, E., & Braun-Fahrländer, C. (2006). Prenatal farm exposure is related to the expression of receptors of the innate immunity and to atopic sensitization in school-age children. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 117(4), 817-23.
Ege MJ, et al. Prenatal Farm Exposure Is Related to the Expression of Receptors of the Innate Immunity and to Atopic Sensitization in School-age Children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;117(4):817-23. PubMed PMID: 16630939.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Prenatal farm exposure is related to the expression of receptors of the innate immunity and to atopic sensitization in school-age children. AU - Ege,Markus Johannes, AU - Bieli,Christian, AU - Frei,Remo, AU - van Strien,Robert Theodoor, AU - Riedler,Josef, AU - Ublagger,Ellen, AU - Schram-Bijkerk,Dieneke, AU - Brunekreef,Bert, AU - van Hage,Marianne, AU - Scheynius,Annika, AU - Pershagen,Göran, AU - Benz,Marcus R, AU - Lauener,Roger, AU - von Mutius,Erika, AU - Braun-Fahrländer,Charlotte, AU - ,, Y1 - 2006/02/07/ PY - 2005/07/22/received PY - 2005/11/18/revised PY - 2005/12/01/accepted PY - 2006/4/25/pubmed PY - 2006/6/1/medline PY - 2006/4/25/entrez SP - 817 EP - 23 JF - The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology JO - J Allergy Clin Immunol VL - 117 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that environmental exposures determining childhood illnesses operate early in life. Prenatal exposure to a farming environment through the mother might also play an important role. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the role of maternal exposures to environments rich in microbial compounds for the development of atopic sensitization, asthma, and corresponding alterations in the innate immune system in offspring. METHODS: In the children of the cross-sectional Prevention of Allergy Risk Factors for Sensitization in Children Related to Farming and Anthroposophic Life Style study, asthma and atopy were assessed by means of standardized questionnaires (n = 8263) and serum IgE measurements (n = 2086). In a subsample (n = 322) gene expression of Toll-like receptors (TLR2 and TLR4) and CD14 was assessed. Maternal exposures were defined through questionnaire information. RESULTS: Both atopic sensitization (adjusted odds ratio, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.39-0.86) and the gene expression of receptors of innate immunity were strongly determined by maternal exposure to stables during pregnancy, whereas current exposures had much weaker or no effects. A dose-response relation was found between the extent of upregulation of these genes and the number of different farm animal species the mother had encountered in her pregnancy. Each additional farm animal species increased the expression of TLR2, TLR4, and CD14 by a factor of 1.16 (95% CI, 1.07-1.26), 1.12 (95% CI, 1.04-1.2), and 1.10 (95% CI, 1.03-1.23), respectively. CONCLUSION: Maternal exposure to an environment rich in microbial compounds might protect against the development of atopic sensitization and lead to upregulation of receptors of the innate immune system. The underlying mechanisms potentially operating through the intrauterine milieu or epigenetic inheritance await further elucidation. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: When assessing risk factors of allergies in an infant's medical history, attention must also be paid to environmental exposures affecting the mother. SN - 0091-6749 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16630939/Prenatal_farm_exposure_is_related_to_the_expression_of_receptors_of_the_innate_immunity_and_to_atopic_sensitization_in_school_age_children_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0091-6749(05)04027-3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -