Hong Kong study using valsartan in IgA nephropathy (HKVIN): a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.Am J Kidney Dis. 2006 May; 47(5):751-60.AJ
Previous studies showed that angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB) therapy decreased proteinuria and possibly slowed the rate of renal function decline in patients with chronic proteinuric nephropathies. We performed a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study on the ARB valsartan in the treatment of patients with immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy.
From 6 centers, we recruited 109 patients with IgA nephropathy who had either: (1) proteinuria with protein greater than 1 g/d and serum creatinine level less than 2.8 mg/dL (< 250 micromol/L), or (2) serum creatinine level of 1.4 to 2.8 mg/dL (120 to 250 micromol/L) regardless of degree of proteinuria. Patients were randomly assigned to administration of either valsartan, 80 mg/d (titrated up to 160 mg/d for blood pressure control), or placebo for 104 weeks. Additional antihypertensive therapy was allowed to achieve a target blood pressure of 140/90 mm Hg. The primary end point was doubling of serum creatinine level or dialysis-dependent renal failure. Secondary outcomes included change in proteinuria and decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR).
There were 54 patients in the treatment group and 55 patients in the placebo group. Baseline clinical characteristics were similar between groups, although the treatment group had a marginally greater baseline GFR (87 +/- 36 versus 78 +/- 38 mL/min/1.73 m2 [1.45 +/- 0.60 versus 1.30 +/- 0.63 mL/s/1.73 m2];P = 0.29) and less proteinuria (protein, 1.8 +/- 1.2 versus 2.3 +/- 1.7 g/d; P = 0.21) than the placebo group. Average blood pressures during the study were 92.7 +/- 10.6 mm Hg in the treatment group and 100.9 +/- 9.1 mm Hg in the placebo group (P < 0.001). During the study period, 4 patients in the placebo group and 1 patient in the treatment group reached the primary end point (log-rank test, P = 0.18). Proteinuria decreased significantly in the treatment group (protein, 1.8 +/- 1.2 to 1.2 +/- 1.2 g/d; P = 0.03), but did not change in the placebo group. With multiple linear regression models, valsartan treatment resulted in a 33.0% decrease in proteinuria (95% confidence interval, 10.9 to 55.1) after adjusting for other confounding factors. There was a significant decrease in mean rate of GFR decrease in the valsartan-treated group (-5.62 +/- 6.79 mL/min/y [-0.09 +/- 0.11 mL/s/y]) compared with the placebo group (-6.98 +/- 6.17 mL/min/y [-0.12 +/- 0.10 mL/s/y]) throughout the study period after adjustment for average blood pressure and proteinuria (P = 0.014).
Valsartan significantly decreases proteinuria and slows renal deterioration in patients with IgA nephropathy after adjustment for confounding factors, notably blood pressure. The long-term benefit of valsartan needs to be confirmed with additional studies.