Multiple motor effects of ATP and their inhibition by P purinoceptor antagonist, pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid in the small intestine of the guinea-pig.Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2006 May; 98(5):488-95.BC
Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) may be an important neurotransmitter in the gastrointestinal tract. The present study examined the motor effects of exogenous ATP on longitudinally-oriented preparations of the guinea-pig isolated ileum and the influence of drugs on the ATP-induced responses. High micromolar concentrations of ATP caused two types of contraction, a phasic, cholinergic response and a tonic, tetrodotoxin-resistant contraction. The phasic contraction was reduced by hexamethonium (5x10(-5) M), but left uninfluenced by capsaicin tachyphylaxis or tachyphylaxis to alpha,beta-methylene ATP. The tonic response was resistant to atropine, hexamethonium, capsaicin, omega-conotoxin GVIA, or pretreatment with alpha,beta-methylene ATP. Both types of ATP-induced contraction were diminished or abolished by the P2 purinoceptor antagonist pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS, 3x10(-6) and 3x10(-5) M, respectively). In the precontracted, atropine-treated ileum ATP (10(-6)-10(-4) M) caused guanethidine-resistant relaxation. This response was not influenced by tetrodotoxin, omega-conotoxin GVIA, or NG-nitro-L-arginine, but was abolished by apamin (10(-7) M), and inhibited by PPADS (3x10(-5) M) or reactive blue 2 (10(-5) M), in a surmountable manner. A high degree of tachyphylaxis was observed with the relaxant effect of ATP (10(-5)-10(-4) M). A high concentration (3x10(-4) M) of PPADS failed to influence ileum contractions to exogenous acetylcholine or histamine. It is concluded that, in addition to its direct contractile action in the guinea-pig ileum, ATP can activate (partly preganglionic) cholinergic neurones, an effect whose mechanism is largely different from that of alpha,beta-methylene ATP. ATP also causes relaxation by a direct, probably P2Y-receptor-mediated effect on the smooth muscle. All motor effects of ATP are inhibited by the antagonist PPADS.