[Prevention of venous thromboembolism in surgery, in laparoscopic surgery, in venous surgery and in urology].Vnitr Lek. 2006 Mar; 52 Suppl 1:41-50.VL
The article summarizes published data regarding the prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in surgery, in laparoscopic surgery, in venous surgery and in urology. In surgical patients with low risk, no specific thromboprophylaxis is needed. Patients with moderate risk levels are the candidates for administration of subcutaneous low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) at doses under 3 400 anti-Xa units a day and patients with increased risk at doses higher than 3 400 anti-Xa units a day during the period of higher risk. In order to decrease the risk of bleeding, a half dose 2 hours prior or 4-6 hours after the operation can be administered. Under the highest risk conditions, there is a recommendation to combine LMWH over 3 400 anti-Xa units with elastic panty-hose or, alternatively, with intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC). At moderate risk levels, subcutaneous administration of unfractionated heparin at the doses of 5 000 units twice a day is also possible and at increased risk levels, a TID administration (LDUH) over the increased risk period. In patients with a significant bleeding risk, the physical method of thromboprophylaxis can be used and pharmacological prophylaxis can set in after the risk of bleeding has passed. Fondaparinux is the alternative to LMWH in people with a history of heparin induced thrombocytopenia over the past three months. The sole use of acetylsalycilic acid is not recommended. While undertaking epidural anaesthesia or analgesia, it is necessary to follow strictly the guidelines of the use of pharmacological thromboprophylaxis. Thromboprophylaxis with LMWH, LDUH, elastic panty-hose or IPC is indicated only in those patients who undergo laparoscopic surgeries and who moreover display the additional thrombosis factors. Patients with additional risk thrombosis factors undergoing major venous reconstructions require prophylaxis with LMWH (or LDUH). Uncomplicated patients undergoing transurethral or other low risk urologic surgery require no specific thromboprophylaxis. If they undergo a major intervention and/or they display additional risk thrombosis factors, they require the administration of LMWH or LDUH. Elastic panty-hose and/or intermittent pneumatic compression have the same indication as in abdominal surgeries.