Increased plasma amylin in type 1 diabetic patients after kidney and pancreas transplantation: A sign of impaired beta-cell function?Diabetes Care. 2006 May; 29(5):1031-8.DC
In response to hyperglycemia, beta-cells release insulin and C-peptide, as well as islet amyloid pancreatic polypeptide, which is involved in glucose homeostasis. After successful pancreas-kidney transplantation (PKT), type 1 diabetic patients may revert to a nondiabetic metabolism without exogenous insulin therapy and re-secrete all beta-cell hormones.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Using mathematical models, we investigated hormone (amylin, insulin, C-peptide) and metabolite (glucose, free fatty acids) kinetics, beta-cell sensitivity to glucose, and oral glucose insulin sensitivity index (OGIS) in 11 nondiabetic type 1 diabetic patients after PKT (BMI 25 +/- 1 kg/m2, 47 +/- 2 years of age, 4 women/7 men, glucocorticoid-free), 6 matching nondiabetic patients after kidney transplantation (25 +/- 1 kg/m2, 50 +/- 5 years, 3 women/3 men, on glucocorticoids), and 9 matching nondiabetic control subjects (24 +/- 1 kg/m2, 47 +/- 2 years, 4 women/5 men) during a 3-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).
PKT patients had higher fasting amylin (19 +/- 3 vs. control subjects: 7 +/- 1 pmol/l) and insulin (20 +/- 2 vs. control subjects: 10 +/- 1 microU/ml; each P < 0.01) levels. Kidney transplant subjects showed increased OGTT plasma insulin at 90 min and C-peptide levels (each P < 0.05). In PKT patients, plasma glucose from 90 to 150 min was 9-31% higher (P < 0.05 vs. control subjects). Amylin clearance was comparable in all groups. Amylin's plasma concentrations and area under the concentration curve were up to twofold higher in PKT patients during OGTT (P < 0.05). OGIS was not significantly different between groups. beta-Cell sensitivity to glucose was reduced in PKT patients (-64%, P < 0.009). Fasting plasma amylin was inversely associated with beta-cell sensitivity to glucose (r = -0.543, P < 0.004).
After successful PKT, type 1 diabetic patients with nondiabetic glycemia exhibit increased fasting and post-glucose load plasma amylin, which appears to be linked to impaired beta-cell function. Thus, higher amylin release in proportion to insulin might also reflect impaired beta-cell function in type 1 diabetic patients after PKT.