Anthropometric, metabolic and dietary fatty acids profiles in lean and obese diabetic Asian Indian subjects.Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2006; 15(2):189-95AP
The present study was aimed to study anthropometric, metabolic and dietary fatty acids profiles among 200 (Group I: lean control, N = 80; Group II: lean diabetic, N = 70 and Group III: obese diabetic, N = 50) Asian Indians (aged 30 years and above) living in the eastern part of India. Anthropometric [height, weight, waist (WC) and hip circumference] metabolic [total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG)] and dietary profiles were collected from each participant. Body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and conicity index (CI) were subsequently computed from anthropometric measures. An open-ended 24 h food recall proforma consisting of three sections and in local language was used to collect nutrient information from each participant. Daily intake of nutrients including saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were estimated by adding all the foodstuffs consumed on weekly and monthly basis. One-way ANOVA with Scheffe's post-hoc test revealed that Group I has significantly lower mean than both Group II and Group III for age, WC, WHR, CI, TC, TG, LDL, FPG and total carbohydrates; Group I has significantly lower mean than Group II only for HDL and Group I has significantly lower mean than Group III only for BMI, total proteins and total fats. On the other hand, Group I has significantly greater mean than both Group II and Group III for UFA/SFA, MUFA/SFA and PUFA/SFA whereas Group I has significantly lower mean than Group III only for trans fatty acids and Erucic acid. Pearson's partial correlation (controlling age and sex) analysis showed that the ratios of unsaturated fatty acids and saturated fatty acids had significant negative association with lipids, lipoprotein and fasting glucose. Discriminant analysis revealed that overall 86.2% of all cases were correctly (positively) classified in three groups using fatty acids and their ratios. In conclusion, it seems reasonable to argue that dietary management including dietary guidelines would be useful to retard the growing incidence of diabetes in Indian population.