Metabolic score--a simple risk marker in non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes.Rev Port Cardiol. 2006 Feb; 25(2):155-71.RP
Atherothrombotic coronary artery disease is increasingly recognized as part of a systemic metabolic disorder. However, little is known about the significance of metabolic dysfunction in the setting of acute coronary syndrome.
Our aim was to assess the prognostic implications of markers of metabolic dysfunction at hospital admission obesity (BMI > 30), previous history of hypertension, admission glucose > 128 mg/dl, triglycerides > 150 mg/dl, and HDL cholesterol < 40 mg/dl for men, or < 50 mg for women--in patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes (ACS).
A total of 303 consecutive patients admitted to the CCU with ACS were included in the study. Mean age was 63 +/- 10 years, and 86% were male. The primary end-point was a composite of death or non-fatal acute myocardial infarction (MI) at one-year follow-up. Each marker was assigned one point, and a metabolic score (MetScore) was calculated for each individual patient by adding together the number of markers present at hospital admission. Three groups were considered: group 1 (MetScore 0) with 0 markers (n = 30); group 2 (MetScore 1 to 3) with 1 to 3 markers (n = 222); and group 3 (MetScore 4 to 5) with 4 to 5 markers (n = 51).
The cumulative incidence of death or MI was 14.5%. We found a statistically significant relation between MetScore and outcome at one-year follow-up. The event rate was 3.3% in the MetScore 0 group, 13.9% in the MetScore 1 to 3 group and 23.5% in the MetScore 4 to 5 group (p = 0.0114). MetScore was an independent predictor of death or MI at one year, with a 2.3-fold risk increase (95% CI: 1.32-4.01; p = 0.003) from one group to the next. Other variables identified as independent predictors of outcome were advanced age, Killip class, ST-segment depression and previous CABG. The incidence of the primary end-point in diabetic patients without significant metabolic dysfunction and non-diabetic patients with SMD was similar (21.2% vs. 22.7%; p = NS).
Assessment of markers of metabolic dysfunction on admission in patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes, adds important prognostic information to conventional clinical, ECG and risk stratification markers and could prove useful in establishing secondary prevention strategies.