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Effect of animal contact and microbial exposures on the prevalence of atopy and asthma in urban vs rural children in India.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2006; 96(4):571-8AA

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Environmental factors, including microbial exposures and close animal contact, are implicated in the lower prevalence of asthma and allergy in rural vs urban children.

OBJECTIVES

To determine (1) the prevalence of asthma, rhinitis, eczema, and atopic sensitization in rural and urban children in India; (2) differences in microbial and animal exposures in these locales; and (3) whether differences in environmental exposures account for the different rates of asthma and atopy in these locales.

METHODS

One child from each of 50 urban (Mysore) and 50 rural (Vinobha) households in southern India was randomly selected for data analysis. Allergy, asthma, health, environment, and lifestyle information was obtained using a questionnaire and household inspections. Atopy was determined via skin prick testing for common allergens. Endotoxin content was measured in house dust samples.

RESULTS

Children from rural vs urban areas had lower prevalences of self-reported asthma (8% vs 30%; P = .005), rhinitis (22% vs 42%; P = .03), and atopic sensitization (36% vs 58%; P = .03). Higher median dust endotoxin loads were found in rural vs urban households (6.50 x 10(4) EU/m2 vs 1.27 x 10(4) EU/m2; P < .001). In multivariate analysis, close indoor animal contact (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.2; 90% confidence interval [CI], 0.05-0.9), outdoor animal contact (OR, 0.3; 90% CI, 0.1-0.8), and exclusive breastfeeding for at least 6 months (OR, 0.2; 90% CI, 0.1-0.5) were associated with lower atopic sensitization; mud flooring was associated with lower self-reported wheezing (OR, 0.1; 90% CI, 0.02-1.0).

CONCLUSION

Children in India who live with close animal contact and mud flooring and who were exclusively breastfed in infancy are less likely to develop asthma, rhinitis, and atopic sensitization.

Authors+Show Affiliations

University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, USA. pkv1947@yahoo.comNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16680928

Citation

Vedanthan, Pudupakkam K., et al. "Effect of Animal Contact and Microbial Exposures On the Prevalence of Atopy and Asthma in Urban Vs Rural Children in India." Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology : Official Publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology, vol. 96, no. 4, 2006, pp. 571-8.
Vedanthan PK, Mahesh PA, Vedanthan R, et al. Effect of animal contact and microbial exposures on the prevalence of atopy and asthma in urban vs rural children in India. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2006;96(4):571-8.
Vedanthan, P. K., Mahesh, P. A., Vedanthan, R., Holla, A. D., & Liu, A. H. (2006). Effect of animal contact and microbial exposures on the prevalence of atopy and asthma in urban vs rural children in India. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology : Official Publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology, 96(4), pp. 571-8.
Vedanthan PK, et al. Effect of Animal Contact and Microbial Exposures On the Prevalence of Atopy and Asthma in Urban Vs Rural Children in India. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2006;96(4):571-8. PubMed PMID: 16680928.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effect of animal contact and microbial exposures on the prevalence of atopy and asthma in urban vs rural children in India. AU - Vedanthan,Pudupakkam K, AU - Mahesh,Padukudru A, AU - Vedanthan,Rajesh, AU - Holla,Amrutha D, AU - Liu,Andrew H, PY - 2006/5/10/pubmed PY - 2006/7/1/medline PY - 2006/5/10/entrez SP - 571 EP - 8 JF - Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology : official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology JO - Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. VL - 96 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: Environmental factors, including microbial exposures and close animal contact, are implicated in the lower prevalence of asthma and allergy in rural vs urban children. OBJECTIVES: To determine (1) the prevalence of asthma, rhinitis, eczema, and atopic sensitization in rural and urban children in India; (2) differences in microbial and animal exposures in these locales; and (3) whether differences in environmental exposures account for the different rates of asthma and atopy in these locales. METHODS: One child from each of 50 urban (Mysore) and 50 rural (Vinobha) households in southern India was randomly selected for data analysis. Allergy, asthma, health, environment, and lifestyle information was obtained using a questionnaire and household inspections. Atopy was determined via skin prick testing for common allergens. Endotoxin content was measured in house dust samples. RESULTS: Children from rural vs urban areas had lower prevalences of self-reported asthma (8% vs 30%; P = .005), rhinitis (22% vs 42%; P = .03), and atopic sensitization (36% vs 58%; P = .03). Higher median dust endotoxin loads were found in rural vs urban households (6.50 x 10(4) EU/m2 vs 1.27 x 10(4) EU/m2; P < .001). In multivariate analysis, close indoor animal contact (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.2; 90% confidence interval [CI], 0.05-0.9), outdoor animal contact (OR, 0.3; 90% CI, 0.1-0.8), and exclusive breastfeeding for at least 6 months (OR, 0.2; 90% CI, 0.1-0.5) were associated with lower atopic sensitization; mud flooring was associated with lower self-reported wheezing (OR, 0.1; 90% CI, 0.02-1.0). CONCLUSION: Children in India who live with close animal contact and mud flooring and who were exclusively breastfed in infancy are less likely to develop asthma, rhinitis, and atopic sensitization. SN - 1081-1206 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16680928/Effect_of_animal_contact_and_microbial_exposures_on_the_prevalence_of_atopy_and_asthma_in_urban_vs_rural_children_in_India_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1081-1206(10)63552-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -