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Iron and pregnancy--a delicate balance.
Ann Hematol. 2006 Sep; 85(9):559-65.AH

Abstract

The review focuses on iron balance during pregnancy and postpartum in the Western affluent societies. Iron status and body iron can be monitored using serum ferritin, haemoglobin, serum soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR) and the sTfR/ferritin ratio. Requirements for absorbed iron increase during pregnancy from 0.8 mg/day in the first trimester to 7.5 mg/day in the third trimester. Average requirement during the entire gestation is approximately 4.4 mg/day. Intestinal iron absorption increases during pregnancy, but women with ample body iron reserves have lower absorption than those with depleted reserves, so increased absorption is, in part, due to progressive iron depletion. Apparently, women do not change dietary habits when they become pregnant. Non-pregnant Scandinavian women have a median dietary iron intake of approximately 9 mg/day, i.e. more than 90% of the women have an intake below the recommended approximately 18 mg/day. Non-pregnant women have a low iron status, 42% have serum ferritin levels <or=30 microg/l, i.e. small or depleted iron reserves and 2-4% have iron deficiency anaemia; only 14-20% have ferritin levels >70 microg/l corresponding to body iron of >or=500 mg. The association between high haemoglobin during gestation and a low birth weight of the newborns is caused by inappropriate haemodilution. In placebo-controlled studies on healthy pregnant women, there is no relationship between the women's haemoglobin and birth weight of the newborns and no increased frequency of preeclampsia in women taking iron supplements.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Medicine B, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. milman@rh.dk

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16691399

Citation

Milman, Nils. "Iron and Pregnancy--a Delicate Balance." Annals of Hematology, vol. 85, no. 9, 2006, pp. 559-65.
Milman N. Iron and pregnancy--a delicate balance. Ann Hematol. 2006;85(9):559-65.
Milman, N. (2006). Iron and pregnancy--a delicate balance. Annals of Hematology, 85(9), 559-65.
Milman N. Iron and Pregnancy--a Delicate Balance. Ann Hematol. 2006;85(9):559-65. PubMed PMID: 16691399.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Iron and pregnancy--a delicate balance. A1 - Milman,Nils, Y1 - 2006/05/12/ PY - 2006/02/13/received PY - 2006/02/23/accepted PY - 2006/5/13/pubmed PY - 2007/1/26/medline PY - 2006/5/13/entrez SP - 559 EP - 65 JF - Annals of hematology JO - Ann. Hematol. VL - 85 IS - 9 N2 - The review focuses on iron balance during pregnancy and postpartum in the Western affluent societies. Iron status and body iron can be monitored using serum ferritin, haemoglobin, serum soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR) and the sTfR/ferritin ratio. Requirements for absorbed iron increase during pregnancy from 0.8 mg/day in the first trimester to 7.5 mg/day in the third trimester. Average requirement during the entire gestation is approximately 4.4 mg/day. Intestinal iron absorption increases during pregnancy, but women with ample body iron reserves have lower absorption than those with depleted reserves, so increased absorption is, in part, due to progressive iron depletion. Apparently, women do not change dietary habits when they become pregnant. Non-pregnant Scandinavian women have a median dietary iron intake of approximately 9 mg/day, i.e. more than 90% of the women have an intake below the recommended approximately 18 mg/day. Non-pregnant women have a low iron status, 42% have serum ferritin levels <or=30 microg/l, i.e. small or depleted iron reserves and 2-4% have iron deficiency anaemia; only 14-20% have ferritin levels >70 microg/l corresponding to body iron of >or=500 mg. The association between high haemoglobin during gestation and a low birth weight of the newborns is caused by inappropriate haemodilution. In placebo-controlled studies on healthy pregnant women, there is no relationship between the women's haemoglobin and birth weight of the newborns and no increased frequency of preeclampsia in women taking iron supplements. SN - 0939-5555 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16691399/Iron_and_pregnancy__a_delicate_balance_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-006-0108-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -